Question: The north-eastern region of India has been infested with insurgency for a very long time. Analyze the major reasons for the survival of armed insurgency in this region.
Answer: The North east has been a volatile region from a very long time which has resulted in insurgency and violence reaching a new peak. However there are many reasons for insurgency to survive in that part.
Major reasons for armed insurgency in Northeast
- Lack of mainstream development
The states of northeast have a distinct culture that have made them separate from rest of the mainland. This resulted in these people avoiding major integration with rest of the country leading to lack of development in infrastructure such as education, industries etc. This readied the ground for growth of insurgency.
- Geographical reasons
The insurgency affected areas are geographically very capable of harnessing such activities. The presence of thick and unexplored forests provided easy cover for insurgents to carry on their activities. In addition their presence along international boundaries allowed them to cross over into neighbouring countries after committing crimes.
- Presence of arms and narcotics trade
The Myanmar border is part of the world’s infamous golden triangle for narcotics trade. The narcotics from across the border are brought into India by these insurgency groups, who in turn get funding for their operations. In addition they also get easy access to arms from across the border.
- Backing from foreign powers
It has been proved more than once that China has a hand in cultivating armed insurgency in India. They are provided funding and also other necessary equipment. Similarly Pakistani support is also seen for ULFA insurgents in Bangladesh.
Measures to tackle insurgency
- Cultural integration
The insurgents must not gain sympathy from residents of that area. To fulfil this, people must be brought into Indian mainstream through cultural integration. This has been one of the major reasons for decreasing insurgency.
Ex: Ek Bharat Shreshth Bharat program.
- Better border management
The borders have been better protected by inculcating technology especially in those areas where humans cannot guard. This has prevented cross border movement of arms, narcotics as well as criminals themselves.
The insurgency has been reduced significantly in the past couple of decades with major insurgency groups signing ceasefire and peace accord persisting for a political solution. This has indeed improved lives of the inhabitants of these areas.