Question: Explain the mechanism of Northeast monsoon. Highlight its importance in agriculture and economy of India.
Answer: Monsoon is a seasonal reversal of winds in which trade winds enter Indian sub-continent bringing along with them moisture laden clouds.
Monsoons play a major role in India’s growth. They are the major source of irrigation for crops and help in maintaining water balance.
Mechanism of northeast monsoon
- Change in ITCZ
During mid-September, the ITCZ starts moving downwards from its position in Indo-Ganges plains. By October the ITCZ is near the east coast and Bay of Bengal.
- Reversal of winds
The winds that blow from southwest direction stop completely. In their place, winds from northeast start blowing towards ITCZ, forming northeast monsoon.
Importance to agriculture and economy
- Sowing in east coast
East coast and Coromandel Coast come under the rain shadow region of southwest monsoon. Hence, agriculture activities take place during northeast monsoon.
- Rainfall in interior
The interior areas of Deccan do not get rains during southwest monsoon. Northeast monsoon blows into the interiors, bringing rains in such areas.
- Water availability
The northeast monsoon acts as sustainer of water requirements. In many regions of the country northeast monsoon contributes to water needs of the people.
Thus, northeast monsoon is indeed a unique phenomenon similar to southwest monsoon. Both these types of monsoons play a major role in India’s development.