Question- 1. Mangroves have a large-scale positive impact on coastal ecology, including the local communities. Elaborate. How climate change is affecting mangrove ecosystems?
Answer: Mangroves are tropical forest ecosystems that grow in shallow, warm water in the intertidal region between land and sea.
Features of mangroves include ability to tolerate saline conditions, excrete excess salts and possess an elaborate network of aerial roots.
Positive impact of mangrove ecosystems
- Coastal protection
Mangroves are the first barriers against coastal storms and tsunamis. They reduce the intensity of waves and protect coastal communities from intensive damage.
- Thriving economy
The mangroves support wide range of fisheries, that can sustain economy of local communities apart from supporting tourism and other economic activities.
- Biological diversity
Wide range of plants and animals can be found in mangrove ecosystem, which has helped sustain biological diversity in the area.
Effects of climate change
- Water density
Density of sea water should be higher to ensure that seeds float and travel over larger distances. Salinity is also critical to protect seeds from fungal attacks.
- Rise in sea levels
Mangroves are able to survive due to their partial location in water and land. Due to rising sea levels, water will inundate the whole region, affecting their productivity.
Thus, mangroves are important to protect land areas from sea erosion. Without mangroves, the ecology will be affected adversely.
Tags: GS 3 (Environment)