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World’s Largest 14GWh Battery Storage System in Kutch, Green Energy

World’s Largest 14GWh Battery Storage System in Kutch, Green Energy


  • GS 3 || Science & Technology || Energy || Renewable Energy

Why in news?

World’s Largest 14GWh Battery Storage System in Kutch

All about battery technology:

Battery technology:

  • A battery is a device that stores chemical energy and transforms it to electrical energy. It is made up of one or more independent electrochemical cells.
  • More specifically, during the discharge cycle, electricity is produced by the movement of electrons from one electrode, the anode or negative electrode, to another, the cathode or positive electrode, providing an electric current that can be utilized to power devices.

Types of Batteries:

  • Lead Acid: Gaston Plante designed the first working outline of a lead acid battery in 1860, and since then, modifications and innovations have been made to meet the demands of time. Significant advancements in lead acid battery technology have been incorporated into car batteries.
  • Primary Battery (or) Primary cells: The main battery (or) the electrode and the electrode reactions in these cells cannot be reserved by passing external electrical energy. The reactions only happen once, and they die after As a result, they are not liable. For instance, a dry cell or a mercury cell.
  • Secondary Battery (or) Secondary Cells The electrode reactions in these cells can be reversed by putting external electrical energy through them. As a result, they may be recharged and reused by passing electric current. These are also known as Accumulators or Storage Cells. Lead-acid storage cell, nickel-cadmium storage cell, etc.
  • Nickel Cadmium: Waldemar Jungner of Sweden invented the basic Ni– Cd battery in 1899. Where alkaline electrolyte was initially utilized, nickel-cadmium batteries are typically constructed of nickel hydroxide as the positive electrode and cadmium hydroxide as the negative electrode dipped in potassium hydroxide.
  • Flow battery (or) Fuel cell: Reactants, products, and electrolytes pass through the cell continually in these cells. Chemical energy is turned into electrical energy in this process. Example: Fuel cell based on hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Lithium–oxygen batteries: The Li–O2 battery consists of two challenging electrodes, i.e. Li and O2. Its operation depends on the stripping/plating of lithium on the negative electrode and formation/decomposition of Li2O2 on the positive electrode.
  • Aluminum battery: Alternative metal ion rechargeable batteries, including SIBs, magnesium-ion batteries and aluminum-ion batteries (AIBs), are attracting much recent research interest. Among these new types of batteries, AIBs have been considered as promising candidates for large-scale application due to rich abundance (8.2 wt% in earth crust) and lower price of Al metal.


  • Sulphuric acid (36 percent) and water (64 percent) are commonly employed as electrolytes in lead-acid batteries. During battery recharge, hydrogen gas from the electrolyte vaporizes, resulting in highly flammable vapors that are dangerous.
  • Ni-Cd batteries are harmful because they contain cadmium, a poisonous element that can cause problems during battery disposal. As a result, in many countries, some material combinations are prohibited.
  • When charging Ni-Cd batteries, a high voltage charger is required, which necessitates a significant investment. It’s tough to predict how the battery will behave.
  • The cost of manufacturing is significant, and monitoring circuits are required to run the battery in safe settings. When the battery is overcharged and overheated, it is susceptible to extreme temperatures.
  • After a certain number of charge-discharge cycles, the efficiency drops. Even when the battery is not in use, it loses its efficiency.

Public Purpose Considerations:

  • Efficacy: Due to the difficulty for investors both private and public funds to check performance, there are a lot of false claims about battery performance. Due to deficiencies in the entrepreneur-investor interaction and scattered policies governing battery testing and quality regulation, such a popular industry is naturally susceptible to disinformation or deception.
  • Impact on the environment: Reducing the usage of fossil fuels for transportation and energy could help to mitigate climate change. Volkswagen published a life cycle analysis of the net carbon footprint of an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) versus an electric vehicle57 in 2019, demonstrating that the EV had a substantially lower cradle-to-grave carbon footprint.
  • Access: Lithium-ion batteries made of less expensive materials will make electric automobiles more accessible to the general public, while those with higher energy density may make electric planes commercially viable. Other battery technologies, on the other hand, are more expensive, therefore guaranteeing accessibility to alternate energy generation and storage alternatives is a crucial public-purpose consideration.
  • Consumer Protection: Concerns over the safety of lithium-ion batteries could put consumers at danger of damage. From a technological standpoint, the use of a highly flammable liquid electrolyte solution in most commercial lithium-ion batteries is the primary source of hazard. Much of the research into safer solid electrolytes has been inspired by these safety concerns.
  • Security: Lithium-ion batteries can help lessen reliance on energy imports from the Middle East and other volatile regions. However, rising demand for cobalt and other limited resources needed in batteries could lead to more conflict and human rights violations in unstable regimes where such minerals are mined, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • Public health: It is a term that refers to the state of reduced air pollution that can help to reduce the occurrence and severity of common respiratory illnesses like asthma and bronchitis. As fossil-fuel-powered vehicles are phased out and replaced by electric vehicles, air quality in big areas like Los Angeles might improve dramatically as smog levels drop.

Battery technology at global technology:

  • Allow for 30% of the required emission reductions in the electricity and transportation sectors, which are critical to meeting the Paris Agreement commitments.
  • Provide electricity to 600 million people, resulting in a 70% reduction in the number of people without electricity.
  • In a fair value chain, create 10 million safe and long-term jobs and $150 billion in economic value.
  • Global battery demand is expected to grow 14-fold by 2030, reaching 2,600 gigawatts per hour. This spike might kickstart a long-term growth cycle that strengthens environmental protection and economic development, creates good jobs, and expands access to electricity.
  • Realizing the full potential of batteries, however, requires a much more sustainable value chain, which can only be delivered through extensive, collaborative action under the three core areas below.
  1. Batteries are one of many technologies that can help reduce transportation emissions and facilitate the transition to a renewable energy source. Through smart grids and vehicle-to-grid, a circular battery value chain can quickly integrate the transportation and power sectors to ensure emissions remain under the Paris Agreement limit. It would also allow us to take use of more of the battery’s potential utilization and end-of-life value.
  2. Many UN Sustainable Development Goals, such as climate action and affordable, clean electricity, can be significantly aided by a globally scaled battery value chain. Simultaneously, significant efforts will be made to eliminate child labor in the value chain by 2030, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which holds more than 70% of the world’s cobalt reserves.

3.     Transform the economy, creating additional value and new jobs.

Government Initiative:

  • NEMMP: It was established in 2013 with the goal of achieving national fuel security by encouraging the use of hybrid and electric automobiles. From 2020 onwards, an ambitious goal of 6-7 million hybrid and electric vehicle sales per year has been set.
  • FAME: The FAME India Scheme [Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid and) Electric Vehicles in India] was introduced in 2015 with the goal of assisting the market growth and manufacturing ecosystem for hybrid and electric vehicles. Technology Development, Demand Creation, Pilot Projects, and Charging Infrastructure are the four focus areas of the scheme.
  • Transformative Mobility and Battery Storage: A National Mission
    • To support initiatives that promote clean, connected, shared, sustainable, and holistic mobility.
    • The Mission will promote mobility solutions that will benefit the industry, the economy, and the country as a whole.


New material combinations for creating good-performing batteries, together with sophisticated BMS, will assist users in safely operating their devices. Batteries must be dependable in any environment or under any working conditions. It is necessary to build a new battery that contains fewer dangerous compounds, has a high energy density, has a low memory effect, and is less subject to pressure or temperature variations. This review makes an attempt to assess the most widely used battery technologies and to highlight their drawbacks. This could be a starting point for more research.