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What is INDEE+? India Norway partnership to produce environmentally friendly technology

What is INDEE+? India Norway partnership to produce environmentally friendly technology

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  • GS 3 || Environment || Climate Change || India & Climate Change

What is INDEE+?

  • INDEE+ is an Indo-Norwegian umbrella project supporting the Indian refrigeration and air conditioning sector in the transition towards more environmentally friendly technology to achieve the goals of the ratified Kigali Amendment of the Montreal Protocol.

Context

  • Recently, the Union Government approved the ratification of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on phasing down climate-damaging refrigerant Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
  • It comes close on the heels of similar decisions by the United States and China, the world’s largest producers and consumers of HFCs. 122 countries had ratified the Kigali Amendment by the end of July 2021.

Details

  • The project is supported by Danfoss, the Danish multinational which has operations in India.Five Indian partners-
  • IIT Madras
  • IISc
  • BITS
  • CIFT
  • CEEW
  • The United States, China, and India are in separate groups of countries, with different time schedules to phase out their HFCs and replace them with climate-friendly alternatives.
  • India has to reduce its HFC use by 80% by the year 2047, while China and the United States have to achieve the same target by the years 2045 and 2034 respectively.

Emissions from refrigeration

  • Refrigeration and cooling cause around 10% of global CO2 emissions.
  • Mass deaths due to high temperatures in summer.
  • Increase in the number of people who use air conditioning.
  • It has been seen that untrained and unskilled technicians generally handle ACs and Refrigerators which leads to leakages from these units.

Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol

  • The Kigali Amendment aims for the phase-down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)by cutting their production and consumption.
  • The goal is to achieve an over 80% reduction in HFC consumption by 2047.
  • Given their zero impact on the depletion of the ozone layer, HFCs are currently used as replacements of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)in air conditioning, refrigeration, and foam insulation, however, they are powerful greenhouse gases.
  • Under the amendment
    • Developed countries will reduce HFC consumption beginning in 2019.
    • Most developing countries will freeze consumption in 2024,
    • Some developing countries including India with unique circumstances will freeze consumption in 2028.
  • The plan also provides financing to certain countries, to help them transition to climate-friendly alternatives.
  • With the Kigali Amendment, the Montreal Protocol has become an even more powerful instrument against global warming.

India’s efforts

  • India recently approved the ratification of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on phasing down climate-damaging refrigerant Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
  • It comes close on the heels of similar decisions by the United States and China, the world’s largest producers and consumers of HFCs. 122 countries had ratified the Kigali Amendment by the end of July 2021.
  • India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) 
    • ICAP is a long-term vision to address the cooling requirement across sectors. Reducing cooling demand by 20- 25% and refrigeration demand by 25- 30% by the year 2037 are the goals of this plan.
    • It seeks to recognize “cooling and related areas” as a thrust area of research under the National S&T Programme. It also seeks to reduce cooling energy requirements by 25% to 40% by 2037-38.
    • Training and certification of 1,00,000 servicing sector technicians by 2022-23, in synergy with Skill India Mission.
    • It also makes provision for cooling for Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG) housing.
    • In line with Montreal Protocol, the planning emphasis cutting those elements that deplete the ozone layer.

Significance

  • India became a party to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in June 1992 and since then has ratified the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. India has successfully met the phase-out targets of all the Ozone Depleting Substances as per the Montreal Protocol Schedule.
  • India is one of the first countries in the world to launch a cooling action plan in 2019. This comprehensive plan is aimed at reducing cooling demand, enabling refrigerant transition, enhancing energy efficiency, and better technology options with a 20-year time horizon
  • It would boost domestic manufacturing and employment generation goals. The ratification would signify that India is ready to compete in the market for low-Global Warming Potential GWP (climate-friendly) refrigerants, which will spur domestic innovation and attract international investments.
  • The signing of the Kigali Amendment is a cue for the markets to make a faster transition from HFCs to cleaner gases.
  • It would boost domestic manufacturing and employment generation goals.
  • The ratification would signify that India is ready to compete in the market for low-Global Warming Potential GWP (climate-friendly) refrigerants, which will spur domestic innovation and attract international investments.
  • The decision would pave the way for India to achieve its climate change mitigation goals and cooling commitments.India is among a small group of countries on track to meet its climate commitments under the Paris Agreement.

India-Norway Collaboration in other sectors

  • India-Norway Marine Pollution Initiative
    • The Initiative will combat marine pollution, which is one of the fastest-growing environmental concerns.
    • Both countries will share experiences, competence and collaborate on efforts to develop clean and healthy oceans.
    • Both sides will jointly collaborate for sustainable use of ocean resources and growth in the blue economy.
    • Through a range of implementing partners, this initiative will seek to support local governments in implementing sustainable waste management practices, develop systems for collecting and analyzing information about sources and scope of marine pollution.
    • They will also work towards beach clean-up efforts, awareness-raising campaigns, and pilot projects using plastic waste as fuel substitution for coal in cement production.
  • India-Norway Ocean Dialogue – In January 2019, the Indian and Norwegian governments agreed to work more closely on oceans by signing an MoU and establishing the India-Norway Ocean Dialogue during the Norwegian Prime Minister’s visit to India in January.
  • A joint Task Force on Blue Economy with government officials, researchers, and experts, as well as the private sector, was established to develop sustainable solutions within strategic areas of the blue economy, such as the maritime and marine sector in addition to the energy sector.

Conclusion

  • For over three decades, the Montreal Protocol has done much more than shrink the ozone hole; it has shown how environmental governance can respond to science, and how countries can come together to address a shared vulnerability.

Mains model Question

  • What is Ozone Layer Depletion? Evaluate the efforts being made to protect the Ozone Layer?
  • India has enormous creative abilities in terms of innovation and technology. By using that, government authorities need to make implementation of ICAP as effective as possible. Discuss

References