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Prelims Capsule

International Relations

How Abraham Accords and India can rein Turkish President Erdogan’s expansionism?

How Abraham Accords and India can rein Turkish President Erdogan’s expansionism?


  • GS 2 || International Relations || India & Rest of the World || West Asia

The Abraham Accords:

  • Israel, the United States, and the United Arab Emirates issued a unified statement known as the Abraham Accords. It also refers to the agreement struck between Israel, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to normalize their relations.
  • On September 15, 2020, UAE Foreign Minister Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Bahraini Foreign Minister Abdullatif bin Rashid Al Zayani, and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu signed the original Abraham Accords. Mohammed Al Khaja, the UAE’s first ambassador to Israel, arrived in the nation on March 1, 2021.
  • The treaties are named after Abraham, the patriarch whom both Judaism and Islam view as a prophet.
  • Following the disastrous war in the Gaza Strip in May 2020, US President Joe Biden and his administration are setting the groundwork to urge more Arab countries to sign agreements with Israel while also trying to reinforce current agreements.

The Abraham Accords’ Importance:

  • Embassies in Israel: According to the Abraham Accords, the UAE and Bahrain would open embassies in Israel and collaborate with Israel on a variety of issues, including tourism, trade, and security.
  • Religious significance: The religious significance is that it would allow Muslims to visit the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, one of Islam’s holiest sites.
  • Middle-Eastern politics:Sudan and Morocco normalized relations with Israel in the same year as the signing of the accords. More countries are expected to follow suit, but given the factitious nature of Middle-Eastern politics, this is unlikely in the immediate future.
  • Struggle for Palestinian statehood:Foreign policy experts believe that the expansion of Iran’s regional clout played a crucial role in the signing of the accords. Iran has always been an adversary of Israel, and its leaders have stated that regardless of who makes peace with Israel, they will continue to struggle for Palestinian statehood.
  • Positive step for India: The Abraham Accords are a positive step for India that could usher in a new era of Middle East peace. India stands to enjoy unparalleled benefits as a result of its cordial ties with all of the accord’s signatories.

The Abraham Accord’s Implications for India:

  • India’s Position: India has welcomed the creation of diplomatic relations between the UAE and Israel on geopolitical grounds, describing both countries as vital partners.
  • Foreign Policy Importance: India’s socioeconomic ties with Israel and the Gulf countries are stronger, more diverse, and increasing. As a result, any changes in regional dynamics will have an impact on India’s regional strategic interests.
  • In the Middle East, forming a minilateral:
    • Such occurrences reflect a watershed moment in Delhi’s relationship with the Middle East.
    • It shows that India is now ready to move away from bilateral ties done in silos and toward a regional policy that is more interconnected.
    • Regional alliances will undoubtedly broaden and deepen Delhi’s reach and impact in the Middle East, just as they have in the Indo-Pacific.
  • India’s balancing act is made easier: The new agreement broadens the moderate support for a peaceful resolution of the Palestine problem, making India’s diplomatic balancing act easier.
  • New Proxy War Arena: The idea of the southern Gulf being the new proxy war arena between Iran and Israel cannot be ruled out, especially in Shia pockets. To keep an eye on such disputes, India will have to be vigilant.
  • India is helping to heal the Arab-Israeli divide:
    • The Arab world and Israel are frequently at odds over Palestine.
    • It was thought that expanding Delhi’s cooperation with Israel and the Arab world at the same time would be impossible.
    • India’s new foreign policy, on the other hand, defied that judgement and established the viability of a non-ideological Middle East involvement.
    • This diplomatic pragmatism enables Delhi to rethink its Middle East strategies.
  • Backlash against the Jihadi fringe movement: Ties between Israel and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) may lead to fresh polarizations between the Jihadi fringe and the mainstream.
  • Economic Challenges: India has a sizable and lucrative regional footprint, particularly as a supplier of people, food products, pharmaceuticals, gem and jewelry, light technical items, and so on. Israel, which has specific strengths in defense, security, solar power, horticulture, and other fields, could challenge this position.
  • Impact on India-Iran Relations: The cold war between Saudi Arabia (Sunni) and Iran has been a major cause of instability in West Asia for decades (Shia). This agreement may widen and intensify the schism, putting India-Iran relations to the test.


India should take advantage of this opportunity to strengthen its position in a region that is strategically important to it.The agreement provides India with fresh potential to play a larger role in regional security and stability in the Gulf, where New Delhi has particular links with both Abu Dhabi and Jerusalem.In the current situation, there may be room for a beneficial trilateral synergy, but India cannot assume its dominance.

Way forward:

  • A durable peace requires a balance between Shia and Sunni, Persian and Arab.
  • Although the United States is the dominant force in the Middle East, Russia has carved out a niche for itself by spending far less money. China has expressed a willingness to play a larger role in the area in recent years, and it has close ties with the UAE, Israel, and, increasingly, Saudi Arabia.
  • Before this market and this expanded neighborhood fall under the Chinese sphere of influence, India should act.
  • An agreement that, if executed well, might pave the way for a new geopolitical structure in the Middle East should include a bigger Indian presence.

Mains oriented question:

After normalization of Israel-Arab relations to some extent, is it feasible for India to go for Indo-Abrahamic Accord?