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What is Pink Collarisation?

What is Pink Collarisation?

Tag: GS 3 || Economy || Structure of the Indian Economy || Labour & Unemployment

What are these coloured collar jobs?

  • The terms “blue-collar” and “white collar” was coined in the early 20th century by Upton Sinclair.
  • These terms are occupational classifications that distinguish workers who perform manual labor from workers who perform professional jobs.

Blue-collar worker:

  • This term was first used in 1924. The working class, who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. It originates from the popularity that blue color enjoys among manual-laborers.
  • Some of the most common industries that employ these individuals include warehousing, oil fields, firefighting, construction, manufacturing, sanitation, custodial work and technical installations like (miners, masons, bricklayers, welders).
  • At the time, most manual workers, especially in industry, wore blue denim or chambray shirts. Blue or navy blue is better at concealing dirt or grease.

 White-collar workers

  • The term “white-collar worker” was coined in the 1930s by Upton Sinclair; it is a salaried professional, typically referring to general office workers and management.
  • It originates from the color of dress shirts worn by professional and clerical workers.
  • White-collars workers typically perform job their duties at a desk with computers, telephones, and other electronic devices.
  • We use the term white-collar for a wide spectrum of office-type jobs. A junior clerk does white-collar work, and so does a highly-skilled professional. for example, Architects, lawyers, and accountants do white-collar work.

Other collar jobs:

  • Unlike white and blue collars the other categories are not derived from the workers wearing any particular color of shirts.
    • Black collar workers: it is used to refer to workers in the mining or the oil industry. Sometimes, it is also used to refer to people who are employed in black marketing activities.
    • Gold collar workers: It is a newly formed phrase that has been used to describe either young, low-wage workers who invest in conspicuous luxury (often with parental support). It is also used to refer to highly-skilled knowledge people who are highly valuable to the company. Example: Lawyers, doctors, research scientists,
    • Green collar workers: it is a worker who is employed in the environmental sectors of the economy. Example: People working in alternate energy sources like solar panels, Greenpeace, World Wide Fund for nature, etc
    • Gary collar workers: it refers to the balance of employed people not classified as white or blue-collar. Although grey-collar is something used to describe those who work beyond the age of retirement. Example: Firefighters, police officers, health care professionals, Security Guards, etc.
    • Open collar workers: the worker who works from home, especially via the internet.

Current relevance:

  • Today blue-collar has evolved.
  • Blue-collar workers are the key driving force for future development. In many industries such as construction, manufacturing, oil and gas, agriculture, transportation, and warehousing.

Pink collar workers:

  • It is employed in a job that is traditionally considered to be women’s work and is often low-paid.
  • The term “pink-collar” was popularized in the late 1970s.
  • The workers who perform jobs in the service industry example: nurses, secretaries, and elementary school teachers. This may include jobs in the beauty industry and childcare.
  • While these jobs may also be filled by men, they are typically female-dominated and may pay significantly less than white-collar or blue-collar jobs.
  • This means that the least technical jobs (pink-collar) jobs are associated with women.
  • These machines designed by men, using the technology they have always monopolized, are now displacing them and forcing them into feminized pink-collar work.
  • It was found as well that men going into traditionally claimed pink-collar jobs are felt discriminated and threatened in their jobs. Men going into positions such as teaching, nursing and childcare faced many negative stereotypes in these lines of work, as men have traditionally been viewed as stern, strong and holding dominant attitudes
  • it is expected that a woman with the same position would be more nurturing, caring and well suited for the work.
  • For e.g: Marketing Coordinator , marketing assistant, Hairstylist,
  • Pink collarisation is the clustering of women in a few occupations like air hostess, receptionist,telecallers, nursing- typically pink collars jobs.
  • The low percentage of women in blue, white, and other colored jobs leads to less diversity in the economy.

Reasons for pink collarisation:

  • Attaching beauty with females
  • Violence
  • Lack of Government efforts towards women in the past.
  • Relationship of women in her household i.e., patriarchal society.
  • Discrimination in hiring bluw and white-collar jobs and STEM(science, technology, engineering, and mathematics).

Current Issues:


  • Glass Ceiling Effect: Clustering in low-status occupations or in the lower rings of the prestigious profession.
  • Women receive lower salaries than men.
  • A high proportion of highly educated and professionally trained unemployed women.


  • Not allowing a girl child to go to school
  • Lessor no freedom in some cases to opt for the profession
  • Restrictions on moving to different places for higher studies and jobs.

Current status of women in jobs:

  • Irrespective of employment category (casual and regular/salaried), organized or unorganized sector and location (urban and rural), women workers in India are paid a lower wage rate, says a report by Oxfam, an international non-profit organization.
  • The gender pay gap was 34 percent in India, that is, women get 34 percent less compared to men for performing the same job with same qualifications, says the report, which based its estimates on employment unemployment survey (EUS) 2011-12, done by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO), International Labour Organization (ILO) studies.

USA data jobs:

Government efforts in diversifying women’s jobs:

  • Government’s program for:
    • skills development,
    • subsidized loans for businesses led by women, and
    • recent legislation doubling maternity leave, and
    • requiring childcare facilities in companies that employ more than 50 people.
  • If implemented and respected, these policies could remove some of the barriers women face and offer a significant boost to India’s economy.

Way Forward:

  • Success will hinge on collaboration between stakeholders, ranging from government ministries, to education providers, to the public sector and especially private sector employers down to the actions of each of us.
  • Indian women themselves will have to play a key role in claiming a space for themselves in India’s workforce.


  • All stakeholders have to take the pledge together today to increase women’s participation in the workforce and realize a higher level of growth and development for India that is more inclusive and sustainable.