Art & Culture
- Right to access internet is fundamental right declares Kerala High Court
- Legal rights of Deities in India, Difference in Natural and Juristic Person
- Bru refugees refuse to return to Mizoram
- No animal sacrifice in Tripura temple-Orders High Court
- EC’s Order on Reducing Sikkim CM’s Disqualification Period
- Law Ministry issues corrigendum to Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act
- Appointment of the Judges in India.
- New Chief Justice of India- How is CJI appointed?
- Indian Penal Code 1860, HM Amit Shah wants to Overhaul IPC
- National Population Register (NPR) 2020
- Whistle Blowers Allegations on Infosys
Governance & Social Justice
- 60% girls in Delhi colleges anaemic
- Niti aayog’s School education quality index
- Multipurpose National Identity Card
- Population pyramid : India Vs China, Demographic dividend Phase of India
- UN Population Report, India will become the most populous country by 2027
- Supreme Court upholds SC and ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendments Act
- Comparing Population Pyramids of India and China
- Waqf boards-Their governance and purpose
- Harvard Admissions Case
- Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana- Ist Anniversary, Problems and solutions
- Significance of sexual and Reproductive Health-Status of reproductive services in India
- Pregnancy in Old Age, What is In Vitro Fertilisation-Risks and legal shortcomings
- Supreme Court Judgement on NGOs and RTI
- Social Stock Exchange
- Rajasthan Govt changes EWS norms, Sets Rs 8 lakh family income as only criteria
- Global hunger index 2019
- No Government job for those with more than two kids
- Ranitidine CANCER risk
- IIT Council Introduces Tenure track system
- Bangladesh growing faster than India ?
- Cyprus dispute explained
- Donald Trump impeachment
- India wins Hyderabad Nizam case against Pakistan
- India’s reply to Pakistan at UNGA
- Prime Minister of Malaysia calls India and invader in Kashmir
- Should India recognise the armenian genocide ?
- Why are CARICOM countries important for India ?
- Why are countries leaving OPEC ?
- Attacks on Saudi Oil facilities
- Organization of Islamic Cooperation issues statement on Jammu and Kashmir
- Sri Lanka’s relations with India & China
- US troops start pullout in Syria as Turkey prepares for operation
- What are Vanilla Islands?
- India-USA trade deal
- UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award-2019
- Modi – Xi Informal meet at Mamallapuram – Historic Chinese links
- India China informal summit in Tamil nadu
- Pakistan save from FATF blacklist till 2020
- USA blacklists China organisations over Uighur Muslim abuse
- Why is Chile burning ?
- Why is the Philippines important for India
- Xi jinping Nepal visit 2019 and impact on India
- India Pakistan Cross LOC Trade suspended, Should India revoke suspension?
- Protests in Lebanon
- Chennai to Vladivostok Sea Route
- End of baghdadi
- Indian government’s security advisory
- Indians no longer require Visa to visit Brazil
- Non Aligned Movement 2019 summit
- US backed Ceasefire between Turkey and Kurds
- Pakistan stops postal exchange with India
- China’s GDP growth slows to 6% slowest in 27 years
- Common Goods for Health project by WHO
- Turkey attack Kurds in Syria
- Behavioural Aspect of Farmer Suicide
- Is rural India really open defecation free ?
- Global Growth Slow Down
- Nobel Prize in Economics 2019
- Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
- SBI wrote off bad loans worth 76,000 crores
- Surge in Onion Price
- Agriculture Credit by RBI’s Internal Working Group
- What is Debt to GDP Ratio?
- Yes Bank Crisis
- Nobel prize in Literature – Controversy
- Boosting Indian Exports
- Sopore Fruit Mandi deserted
- What is Pink Collarisation?
- Mizoram to have Broad Gauge railway line by 2021
- Demand downturn in Indian Economy
- Payment facilitation fund
- Participatory Guarantee Scheme
- RBI’s 4th Bi-monthly Monetary Policy 2019-20
- Tourism restrictions lifted in Kashmir
- Link between Jobs, Farming, and Climate
- Draft Social Security Code 2019
- State Tax Revenues, SGST and Central Tax Devolution are likely to fall short
- Competitiveness Index 2019 by World Economic Forum
- NITI Aayog’s Water Resources Strategy
- BSNL and MTNL financial issues-DoT prepares Rs 74000 crore revival plan
- 20th Livestock Census
- India falls 10 ranks in World economic forum’s Global competitiveness index
- RBI stops Printing Rs 2000 Notes
- What is the Unified Approach proposal of OECD?
- FCI granaries overflowing
- India’s Economic Growth 2019
- Financial Sector Scams in India
- Labour Market of India
- New Strategic Disinvestment Process
- Payment Delays to Sugarcane Farmers
- Why India’s IMF Quota is not increased
- What is monetary policy Transmission? Why banks are not reducing interest
- Mahatma Gandhi’s theory of Economics
- India moves up 14 spots to 63 on world Bank ease of doing business index
- New amendments to the Motor Vehicles Act
- Power Sector Scenario in India
- Telecos to Pay Rs 96,642 crore to the Government
- Camel population declines in Rajasthan
- Merger of BSNL and MTNL
- World bank on Indian economy
Defence & Security
- Nagas Kukis Conflict, What is the cause of the latest tensions?
- Case against 50 Celebrities controversy
- Can Indian Government intercept WhatsApp?
- UP Government fires 25000 home guards, Is Yogi Government’s decision justified?
- NCRB’s Crime in India 2017 report
- Aadhaar Social Media mandatory linking case
- What is TechSagar? National repository of India’s cyber tech capabilities.
Science & Technology
- ISRO’S Project NETRA
- Facebook’s LIBRA Currency in trouble
- WHO launches first World report on Vision
- 2019 Nobel prize in physics
- 2019 Nobel prize in Physiology and Medicine
- Elon musk’s starlink project
- NASA’s ICON mission
- New King of the Moons in the Solar system is Saturn
- What Is Spectroscopy ?
- Quantum supremacy
- Climate Vulnerable Mapping Of India
- C40 Cities
- Gujarat Unveils emission trading scheme
- Forest Plus 2.0
- Himalayan States seeks Green Bonus
- India to Phase Out Single Use Plastic (SUP) by 2022
- Role of Volcanoes in Global Warming
- NH 766 ban controversy, Protests in Kerala against night traffic ban on the forest stretch
- Climate Change needs Global Solution
- Aarey Forest -2185 trees to be cut for Mumbai metro
- Government to build 1400 km long Green wall
- Graded Response Action Plan in Delhi
- Aerosol formation brightening clouds
- Anthrax outbreak in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Two affected buffaloes died
- Species in News from June to October 2019
- Climate Action Summit 2019
Tag:GS3|| Economy || Structure of the Indian Economy || Labour & Unemployment
Why in news?
- The period from January 2017 till recently, when we saw huge disruptions—from demonetization to the implementation of the goods and services tax and the crimp on bank lending due to an attempt to resolve bad loans by recourse to bankruptcy courts—may have seen low or even negative jobs growth in some months.
Various organization data on unemployment:
- World Bank data: the world bank in its publication South Asia Economic Focus, Spring 2018: Jobless Growth?, says that over the long-term, India has been creating 7,50,000 new jobs for every one per cent rise in gross domestic product (GDP); at an average of 7% growth, India should be creating at least 5.25 million jobs, if not more.
- Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy’s data: The pessimistic estimates of the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy’s (CMIE’s) four-monthly unemployment surveys. Between the January-April survey and the September-December one in 2016, nearly 5.7 million jobs were created. Since then, given the great disruptions, there has been a levelling off of jobs growth, with the latest survey (May-August 2018) showing a dip of nearly 3.5 million jobs from the previous survey.
- NSSO Data:
- India’s unemployment rate hit a 45-year-high of 6.1 per cent in 2017-18, as per the National Sample Survey Office’s (NSSO’s) periodic labour force survey (PLFS) of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
- The reports further said that unemployment was higher in urban areas (7.8%) as compared to 5.3% in rural areas of the country.
- Unemployment among rural females: For educated rural females, the unemployment rate ranged between 9.7% to 15.2% between 2004-05 to 2011-12, which rose to 17.3 per cent in 2017-18.
- Unemployment among rural males: In the case of rural educated males, the joblessness rate surged to 10.5 per cent in 2017-18 from 3.5-4.4% between 2004-05 to 2011-12.
- The labour force participating rate (LFPR) –the portion of the population working or seeking job -declined from 36.9 per cent in 2017-18 as against 39.5 per cent in 2011-12.
The link between growth and jobs:
- In the 1990s, the employment elasticity in India was nearly 0.4. This number measures how much a given rise in growth impacts jobs.
- This means, for every percentage rise in growth, we get only a 0.2% impact on employment.
- This falling employment elasticity is partly the result of the large-scale substitution of labour with capital and automation. It is a no-brainer for promoters to use capital and automation when labour is going to be heavily regulated.
- The gap between jobs created and jobs sought will be just over 1.5 million annually. This is the core of our jobs problem right now, but it could change if more people, especially women, actively seek to enter the jobs market.
- All these people who will get incomes from the public and private sector then they will go out and spend, and when they spend they will create demand; there’s a huge paucity of demand in the economy. With that demand, there will be the emergence of new activities, which will then generate the kind of entrepreneurs. If there are start-ups or if there are micro-entrepreneurs, they will havea market to cater to.
- Public employees per population: The average of public employees per population, which is a kind of indicator of what public services government is providing: globally the average is 3.5 per 100 people, in Europe it’s more like 6 per 100, in Scandinavia it’s as high as 8 per 100, in India it’s less than 2 per 100. We are under-providing public services.
- Whether it is your street vendor or it is a small person running a small factory or a small service provider, all of them have to face the rather oppressive hand of the state in different ways, which doesn’t really help them in terms of improving their productivity. Now, does that mean that we should just allow the freedom to hire and fire?
- Labour Codes:
- Aimed at helping investors and accelerating growth, the government is planning new labour legislation that would merge 44 labour laws under four categories– wages, social security, industrial safety & welfare, and industrial relations.
- The laws related to social security, including the Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, Employees’ State Insurance Corporation Act, Maternity Benefits Act, Building and Other Construction Workers Act and the Employees’ Compensation Act will be merged to create a single social security law or code.
- Broaden The Scope:Government has to frame a law about on-the-job training, that workers need to be skilled but employers don’t want to invest in skilling. We need a portable national programme where workers acquire apprenticeships in one firm. The stakeholders (government and companies) have to solve this problem of underinvestment in skilling by individual firms, so that is a very big agenda.
- Job creation: Government has to identify the potential areas where jobs can be created like:
- Gig economy
- Internet platform.
- identifying specific sectors:
- Currently, sectors like auto, real estate, banking, construction, agriculture and MSMEs – all of which contribute a considerable amount towards India’s GDP – are facing a sharp demand slowdown.
- The government could start off by identifying such sectors, chalking out practical investment plans and reducing the compliance burden to help in their recuperation.
- The government to not only address the funding crisis but also ease land acquisition rules and initiate labour reforms initially for such sectors.
- The government has to focus how to increase the higher standard of living and per capita income for Indians; more government revenues that can be used for various welfare schemes; rise in savings and investments; higher FDI inflows and increased clout for India on the world stage.
- The factors such as inflation, fiscal deficit, and current account deficit are issues of a lower priority but fixing dwindling GDPgrowth and financial sector woes are the need of the hour.
- Registration of firms: As you know, in India there are perhaps 60 million-odd enterprises, and mostly in the unregistered sector. And out of the 60 million only about one, one-and-a-half million, 2 million actually contribute towards Provident Fund or ESI [Employees’ State Insurance]. So, a very large proportion is in the unregistered or informal sector. So, as a first step, perhaps we can make it easy for these firms to get registered, or to comply.
- The government must first get the hands on the right high-frequency data. Without this, we can’t even define the nature of our jobs problem.
- Fill the vacancies [in the government sector], but expand good quality public employment. The government would support filling up the vacancies, which are more than two million. But also, a national-level apprenticeship programme with portability, subsidized and well-defined accreditation which government can take to any part of India.