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- GS 3 || Economy || Agriculture || Agricultural Production & Productivity
Why in news?
Tripura develops India’s first ever Bamboo cricket bats and stumps.
- The bats’ development has been aided by the use of hard Boom (local name) bamboo. Kanakaich (a native type of bamboo) has also been utilized to construct bamboo wickets that are nearly impenetrable.
- We used our own bamboo blue board technology to produce this product.
- Four to five months ago, a Cambridge university paper published a lengthy article on the use of bamboo as an alternative for traditional bat-making methods.
- The project was then taken up by NECTAR, with the BCDI taking on the remaining work, according to BCDI-NECTAR chairman Dr.Abhinab Kant.
All about Bamboo and bamboo cultivation:
About feature of bamboo:
- Bamboo may grow in dry soil, but it produces the most when it is well-irrigated.
- Bamboo, like sugarcane, requires roughly 10-20 litres of water per day per plant.
- Bamboo can withstand both high and low rainfall, and it produces 8-10 shoots each year.
- Each bamboo plant can absorb approximately 400 kg of CO2 each year.
Status of bamboo cultivation in India:
- Bamboo is planted on 10 million hectares in India, accounting for over a third of the country’s total forest area.
- Bamboo is produced at a rate of five million tonnes per year.
- Bamboo provides a living for around 8.6 million people in India, with a market value of $4.4 billion.
- Despite the fact that Madhya Pradesh has the most bamboo forests, bamboo culture thrives in the North East.
- In terms of bamboo diversity, India is second only to China.
- The 58 bamboo kinds found in the North-Eastern States are a treasure trove of bamboo diversity.
Significant characteristics of bamboo:
- Monoculture tree plantations: When contrasted to monoculture tree plantations, bamboo has numerous advantages.Bamboo clumps begin yielding 4-7 years after planting, and it can be used as part of agroforestry in modest land holdings.
- Wood substitute: By acting as a wood substitute, new bamboo plantings may help to alleviate the pressure of deforestation.
- It can be used to restore highly damaged and contaminated landscapes including wastelands.
- Due to its unique clump formation and fibrous root system, it is a good soil binder and so plays a significant role in soil and water conservation.
- Benefit to nature:It is the canopy with the fastest growth rate, producing 35% more oxygen than trees.According to some studies, bamboo stands sequester 12 tonnes of carbon dioxide per acre.
Importance and uses of bamboo:
- Bamboo is considered a poor man’s timber in many countries, as it is cultivated on 10 million hectares in India and accounts for over a third of the entire forest area.Bamboo provides a living for around 8.6 million people in India, with a market value of $4.4 billion.
- Bamboo has several advantages over monoculture tree plantations: Bamboo clumps begin yielding 4-7 years after planting, and it can be used as an agroforestry approach in limited land holdings. By acting as a wood substitute, the new bamboo plants may help to alleviate the burden of deforestation.
- Soil and Water Conservation:Because of its unique clump formation and fibrous root system, it is an excellent soil binder and thus contributes to soil and water conservation.
- Bamboo In-Housing: The concept of green construction materials generated from renewable materials that consume less energy, are less polluting, economically effective, and environmentally sustainable in life cycle analysis is gaining traction.
- Environmentally Sustainable Natural Product:Bamboo is grown in plantations, both pure and under planting, as well as in homesteads, making it an environmentally sustainable natural product. Bamboo can also be used to restore degraded forests, other wastelands, and abandoned shifting agricultural areas.
- Fastest growing plant: It outperforms wood in terms of physical and mechanical qualities and is extremely adaptable for use in construction. Bamboo has been called “green gold,” “friend of people,” and “cradle to coffin timber” among other things.
- Most exceptional use is to control population:
- Bamboo plantings along the Yamuna’s banks will not only absorb CO2, but also reduce particle pollution.
- The plant is an “outstanding scavenger,” with roots that don’t go deeper than two feet, allowing it to absorb rich nutrients in raw sewage that flows untreated into the Yamuna, hence increasing the river’s biological oxygen demand.
- Bamboo yields 4,000 kcal per kilogramme, but coal produces 3,000-5,000 kcal per kilogramme.
- Bamboo has a 1% ash level, compared to coal’s 10-30%, which provides a disposal challenge; it also emits no sulphur, making it an ideal coal alternative.
Challenges faced by bamboo sector:
- Trained Manpower Challenges: In order to transform a bamboo plant into a resource, trained manpower is required, however trained manpower is in short supply in the bamboo industry in the study area.
- Traditional bamboo items created by bamboo that has not been properly dried have the potential to disperse and fail to serve for the intended period of time.
- Training and Technology Challenges: It was noted that the trainings organised in the study region with the collaboration of several governmental agencies had several issues, including that the trainings were not well-planned and structured.
- Capital, Working, and Selling Place Challenges: Providing training is insufficient to leverage the bamboo handicraft sector for the establishment of job opportunities and extra income.
- Organizational Challenges: The minimal effort made by the TVEsD department and offices at the zonal level to organise traditional bamboo processors in TVEs did not produce the expected results.
- Marketing:Traditional bamboo handicrafts, according to informants, do not have an appropriate market throughout the year.
- Attitudinal Challenges: For bamboo-based traditional handicraft outputs, members of society with low income and those with medium and higher income have distinct attitudes.
- Support Service Challenges: It is the role of governmental bodies to organise and give training on improved bamboo processing procedures, as well as to supply trainees with technology, capital, work, and a selling location and market.
Measure to be taken for bamboo sector:
- Developing an ‘agricultural mindset’ instead of a ‘forestry mindset’: It is necessary to raise awareness about the species’ commercial viability and profitability.
- Introduction of new bamboo species: New bamboo species with a proven track record of higher yield and the ability to grow well under a variety of climatic and edaphic settings will be tested for higher yield.
- Bamboo Cultivation Data Management: Data management based on actual bamboo removals from forests is urgently needed, both by right holders for home consumption and by forest authorities for commercial purposes.
- Screen and produce genetically superior germplasm for commercial bamboo species: Genetic and breeding research to boost productivity through superior clone selection is urgently needed.
- Need for value addition: There is an immediate need for ready-to-use raw materials, such as housing materials, improved equipment, and machinery/skill development, so that output may be increased without sacrificing quality.
Idea to learn from other countries model:
- Growing and displaying bamboo forests and goods has been a huge success in China.
- The International Bamboo and Rattan Organisation (INBAR) has its headquarters in China.
- It is a multinational development organisation that uses bamboo and rattan to promote environmentally sustainable development.
- With accomplishments in areas such as raising standards, promoting safe, resilient bamboo construction, restoring degraded land, capacity-building, and informing green policy and sustainable development objectives, it has made a real difference in the lives of millions of people and environments around the world.
Measures taken by the government:
- Transit permits: The Indian government passed an act designating farmed bamboo as a non-forest produce that can be transported without the need for transit permits.
- National Bamboo Mission: There are over 1,200 bamboo species worldwide, with 136 of them found in India.The National Bamboo Mission has identified 16 bamboo species that can be used for economic reasons.
- Tissue grown saplings: Farmers will be given tissue grown saplings to stimulate massive block plantations, according to the board.
- Providing loans: The board is working with NABARD and the State Bank of India to provide loans to them with a three-year interest-free period and a five-year repayment period.
- Demand and supply: The current market demand and supply mismatch emphasises the need for active bamboo cultivation promotion and area under cultivation extension through the development of innovative agroforestry methods.
- Considerable deal of diversity: Bamboos in India exhibit a considerable deal of diversity in terms of habitat and growth habits.
- Important for conservation: Bamboos are important for conservation in and of themselves, and they can also act as indicators of high biodiversity in certain groupings.
- Significant work will be necessary to compile an acceptable data base for policy and management choices on bamboo conservation and agriculture.
Mains oriented question:
Bamboo cultivation is yet not that focused area by government, and many challenges are faced by this sector, write about bamboo cultivation and issue faced by this sector. (200 words)