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Prelims Capsule


PM Modi at COP26 Summit Glasgow key highlights – What is Panchamrit?

PM Modi at COP26 Summit Glasgow key highlights – What is Panchamrit?


  • GS 3 || Environment || Governance: International || Environmental Organizations

Why in news?

PM Modi’s ‘Panchamrit’ gift at COP26

What is COP-26?

  • The UK hosted the COP 26 UN Climate Change Conference from October 31 to November 12.
  • The event will see leaders from more than 190 countries, thousands of negotiators, researchers and citizens coming together to strengthen a global response to the threat of climate change.
  • It is a pivotal movement for the world to come together and accelerate the climate action plan.
  • This year marks the 26th Conference of Parties (thus the name COP26) and will be held in the Scottish Event Campus in Glasgow.
  • The conference comes months after the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published its assessment report on Earth’s climate,
  • Highlighting heat waves, droughts, extreme rainfall and sea-level rise in the coming decades.

What is the significance of COP26?

  • This year’s COP is the most important climate summit since the Paris Agreement was signed in 2015.
  • In previous sessions, a draught of the rules known as the ‘rulebook’ was drafted, but governments have so far been unable to agree on key areas.
  • Countries are also likely to enhance their climate aspirations during the summit, upgrading their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

What happened recently?

  • Delivering the national statement at the COP26 global climate summit in Glasgow, PM Narendra Modi said India will achieve net-zero emissions by 2070.
  • This was one of the five major commitments he made on behalf of India, to mitigate climate change.
  • Terming the commitments as “panchamrit”, India’s gift to the world, the PM reiterated that India is working very hard on tackling climate change-related issues.
  • India is the only country that is delivering in ‘letter and spirit’ on the Paris Declaration commitments on tackling climate change

PM of India’s ‘Panchamrit’ To Tackle Climate Change:

  • By 2030 non-fossil fuel generation will increase by 500 GW.
  • By 2030 India will increase 50% renewable energy.
  • Carbon emission to be reduced by 1 billion tonnes.
  • 45% reduction in carbon intensity.
  • Net zero emission by 2070.

Pledges made by India in Glasgow:

One billion tonne carbon reduction:

  • According to the World Resources Institute, India’s total greenhouse gas emissions were about 3.3 billion tonnes in 2018. It’s projected to rise above 4 billion tonnes per year by 2030.
  • That would mean between now and 2030, India could be emitting anywhere between 35 to 40 billion tonnes at the current rates of growth.
  • Cutting 1 billion tonnes would, therefore, represent a reduction of 2.5 to 3% in its absolute emissions.
  • The Prime Minister referred to the Indian Railways’ target of achieving net zero emissions by 2030, along with the Government of India’s initiative aimed at reducing 40 billion tonnes of emissions through the use of LEDs.

Pledge to Reduce Methane:

  • The European Union (EU) and the United States have made a historic vow to reduce emissions of the strong greenhouse gas methane, a commitment that might avoid global warming by 0.2 degrees Celsius.
  • Members of the alliance will work to reduce global methane emissions by 30% below 2020 levels by 2030. Methane is the second-largest contributor to climate change after carbon dioxide.
  • Apart from the EU and the US, over 103 nations have already signed up, including significant methane emitters like Nigeria and Pakistan.
    • The United States’ Global Methane Pledge, which was initially announced in September 2021, currently covers emissions from two-thirds of the world’s GDP.
    • China, Russia, and India all declined to join, while Australia has stated that it will not support the pact.

Climate Finance:

  • Climate funding cannot continue at the levels decided in 2009 (100 billion USD), according to India, who believes it should be at least USD 1 trillion to accomplish the aims of combating climate change.
  • In the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) discussions, India stressed the importance of Like-Minded Developing Countries (LMDC) unity and strength.
    • To protect the interests of the Global South in the fight against climate change, India stressed that acknowledging the existing issues faced by developing countries necessitated increased multilateral collaboration rather than increased global economic and geopolitical competition and trade conflicts.
  • India has asked LMDC members to join hands with it in supporting global initiatives such as the International Solar Alliance (ISA), the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI), and the Leadership Group for Industry Transition (LGIT) (LeadIT).

Net Zero Emission:

  • By the year 2070, India will have achieved carbon neutrality and net-zero emissions.
  • PM Modi has taken a historic step in demonstrating India’s commitment to combating climate change. Despite its status as a developing country, India leads the way in terms of environmental protection.

Carbon emissions and intensity reduction:

  • India will cut 1 billion tonnes of carbon emissions from its total anticipated emissions by 2030, according to Prime Minister Modi.
  • India’s economy will also lower carbon intensity by 45 percent.

Energy from renewable sources:

  • When India announced its goal of achieving 450 GW of installed capacity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030, it was viewed as overly ambitious.
  • India is now not only on course to meet this goal, but has also opted to increase it to 500 GW. India has also committed to sourcing 50% of its energy from renewable sources by 2030.

One Sun One World One Grid Group (OSOWOG) Launched:

  • It is a joint endeavour between India and the United Kingdom to harness solar energy and allow it to flow freely across national borders.
  • It includes the Green Grids Initiative (GGI) – One Sun One World One Grid alliance of states.
  • The goal of GGI is to assist in achieving the speed and scope of infrastructural and market system reforms required to support the global energy transition.
  • It has the potential to be a modern engineering marvel as well as a catalyst for significantly increasing renewable electricity generation and substantially reducing climate change in the coming decade.
  • The global solar grid will be built in three phases, according to the ISA’s concept note on OSOWOG.
    • The ‘Indian Grid’ will connect with networks in the Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia in the first phase to exchange solar and other renewable energy resources to meet electrical needs, even during peak demand.
    • In the second phase, it will be connected to the African power pools.
    • To realise the OSOWOG’s aim, the third phase would involve global interconnection of the electricity transmission system.

Climate Finance & Technology Transfer as a Must:

  • The Prime Minister sent a clear message to industrialised countries, saying that, just as India has increased its ambition in setting its targets, they must do the same in climate funding and technology transfer.
  • With previous climate finance goals, the world will not be able to meet future targets. The Prime Minister also called on industrialised economies to set aside $1 trillion for climate finance.


  • PM Modi’s theme of “Living for the Environment” is based on Indian culture and Mahatma Gandhi’s teachings about living in harmony with nature.

Justice for the Climate:

  • Because the seas, forests, wetlands, grasslands, and other natural ecosystems absorb 50% of emissions, the Paris Agreement goals and carbon neutrality cannot be realised unless ecological systems are preserved, developed, and supported.
  • It will be difficult to attain neutrality unless a commitment is made to achieve net-zero biodiversity loss.
  • This has to be a key component of the countries’ efforts to achieve net-zero emissions.
  • If pressure is applied to countries who have not met their climate financing pledges, true justice will be served.
  • If pressure is applied to countries who have not met their climate financing pledges, true justice will be served.

Climate Change in India:

  • India has a population of 17 percent of the world’s population, yet contributes just 5% of global emissions.
  • However, the entire world now acknowledges that India is the only big economy that has followed through on the Paris Agreement in both text and spirit. The majority of countries have taken their time.
  • The United States is one such country that had previously shied away from climate change, but has now returned.
  • India’s track record demonstrates that it is committed to addressing climate change and is making every effort to meet its promises. India has made a number of initiatives to combat climate change, including:
  • The Prime Minister has suggested an International Solar Alliance Disaster Risk Reduction Alliance to pool countries’ resources in the event of an emergency, such as a natural disaster.
  • Climate change can only be addressed if it is addressed internationally.

What could India do to achieve its objectives?

  • Update India’s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs): It’s time for India to update its NDCs. (Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) highlight each country’s efforts to cut national emissions.)
  • Planning that works: To achieve development, sector-by-sector planning are required. We must decarbonize the electrical and transportation sectors, as well as begin to consider carbon per passenger mile.
  • Transitioning to a cleaner energy source: Figure out ways to transfer our coal industry as quickly as possible.
  • Strong legal framework: India’s legal and institutional framework for climate change has to be strengthened.

Future Perspective:

  • India:
    • India can increase its NDC goal of decreasing Emissions Intensity (the ratio of emissions to GDP) from 33-35 percent in 2005 to 38-40 percent in 2030. This is doable because, according to India’s own NDC, the country has been reducing EI at a rate of roughly 2% per year.
    • Invoking CBDR, India could also offer to achieve net zero by 2070-75.
    • If pressed for a peaking year, a figure of 2040-45 may not be far off the mark, especially if forest and tree cover growth is accelerated.
    • India has expressed reservations about COP 26’s target of achieving net-zero emissions by 2050.
    • The country expects the gathering to kick off the process of determining long-term climate finance for the period after 2025.
    • The five core efforts of the COP26 Presidency on sustainable land use, energy transition, low emission vehicle transition, climate finance, and adaptation have also been embraced by India.
  • World: COP26 must concentrate its efforts on attaining the 45 percent reduction in emissions from 2010 levels required by 2030 to keep global warming below 1.5°C.


India has taken a variety of measures to combat climate change. India is putting climate change at the forefront of its policy, from making the world’s largest railway carrier Net-Zero by 2030 to saving 40 billion tonnes of emissions through LEDs.

Mains oriented question:

Will India be able to achieve a net-zero carbon emissions target by 2070? What are the necessary steps that need to be taken? (200 words)