- Should Election Campaigns be made virtual?
- What is Lok Adalat Analysis of the performance of Lok Adalats
- Indian federalism and its impact on Covid-19 Pandemic management
- What is Ordinance? How frequent re-promulgation of ordinances violates the spirit of the Constitution?
- Live in relationships Morally, Socially Unacceptable says Punjab and Haryana High Court
- West Bengal Government to set up Legislative Council – Pros and Cons of Legislative Council
Governance & Social Justice
- Method to evaluate students academic performance amid Covid 19 pandemic
- India to takeover China to become Most Populated Country by 2025 – China’s population declines
- Smriti Irani on protection of children orphaned by Covid 19
- Impact of lockdown on lives and livelihoods of informal sector workers
- What is Doomsday Scrolling? Impact of Doomsday Surfing on Mental health and wellness?
- Israel vs Syria – Why the Middle East is constantly in a war like situation?
- India Pakistan Backchannel Diplomacy
- Digital Data Revolution and New Global Order – Role of India in a hyper-connected world
- India Bhutan Friendship – BRO’s project DANTAK completes 60 years in Bhutan
- Why the United Kingdom is tilting towards the Indo Pacific?
- Israel Palestinian conflict is heading towards a full-scale war warns United Nations
- Why BIMSTEC must reinvent itself? India and its Neighbourhood
- UK invites India to G7 Summit 2021 – Why India is important for G7?
- Impact of Covid 19 on India’s Foreign Policy
- KP Sharma Oli reappointed as Prime Minister of Nepal – Opposition parties failed to muster majority
- What is Diplomatic Immunity? Belgian ambassador’s wife slapped shopkeeper in South Korea
- Permanent Court of Arbitration – Composition, functions, and members – Difference in PCA, ICJ & ICC
- Elon Musk Tesla will not accept cryptocurrency – Bitcoin plunges 17%
- GST collection at all-time high of over Rs 1.41 Lakh Crore
- Covid 19 Vaccine Patent Waiver – Can it solve the global vaccine shortage problem?
- Mamata Banerjee vs CBI – What is Narada bribery case?
- RBI approves transfer of Rs 99122 crore as surplus to Centre
- Impact of Covid 19 on Indian Steel Industry
Defence & Security
- Former Maldives President Mohamed Nasheed injured in ISIS-led bomb blast
- Cyber Warfare and Biowarfare explained – Difference in Modern Warfare and Conventional Warfare
- Jammu and Kashmir Police ban LIVE coverage of encounters – Impact on freedom of press?
- What is Havana Syndrome Mysterious disease caused brain injury in 130 US officials
- What are Non-State Actors? Role and impact of Non-State Actors in International Relations?
- Police Encounters in India – Rule of Law vs Police Impunity
- 6.4 Magnitude Earthquake jolts Assam – Why North East India is prone to frequent earthquakes?
- Israel religious festival stampede kills 44 and leaves more than 100 injured
- State of Working India 2021 One year of Covid 19 report by Azim Premji University
- Lightning kills 18 elephants in Assam – Is it scientifically possible?
- Why Cyclone Tauktae is unique? Is climate change making cyclones in the Arabian sea more dangerous?
Science & Technology
- Forest Conservation Act and proposed amendments by MoEF&CC
- New Zealand Climate Change Law for Financial Firms explained
- What is Ecocide? French Parliament passed ECOCIDE offence to punish environmental damage
- Covid 19 Vaccine Wastage in India – How Kerala managed Zero Wastage of Covid vaccine?
- First time in India 8 Asiatic lions test Covid positive at Hyderabad zoo – Battling Covid in animals
- How Global Food Waste is choking our Planet?
- Sunderlal Bahuguna – Leader of Chipko Movement and noted environmentalist dies of Covid 19
- GS 3 || Security || Tackling Security Threats || Nuclear Weapons
- Over the past five years, an alarming number of American diplomats, troops, and intelligence officers have been suddenly stricken with a mysterious illness called Havana Syndrome.
- Even more disturbing, reports have trickled out that the CIA and the Pentagon don’t believe this is a naturally occurring illness – it’s a deliberate act of aggression.
Details of the Report
- According to a study published by the National Academies of Sciences (NAS), guided microwave radiation is a possible cause of Havana syndrome.
- The NAS studied four different theories to describe the symptoms, including Infection, chemicals, psychological factors, and microwave energy are all factors to consider.
- Scientists spoke about psychological disease caused by the traumatic climate of international missions or brain disorders in diplomats who had fallen ill in previous attempts by different government agencies.
- Microwave weapons are said to be a type of direct energy weapon that fires highly concentrated energy at a target in the form of acoustic, laser, or microwaves.
- They aim at highly focused energy in the form of sonic, laser, or microwaves, at a target.
- Developed by the US during the cold war era
- They are a part of a group of weapons known as directed-energy weapons (DEWs), which were first developed by the US and the erstwhile Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Advantages of these weapons
- Such weapons can be used invisibly and with comparatively less collateral damage if used correctly.
- The logistical problems of obtaining more ammunition are removed because all that is needed is a surplus of resources.
- Depending on operational factors, less expensive to operate than conventional guns.
- Some of the DEWs currently (or probably) in use are as follows
- Active Denial System (ADS), a non-lethal directed-energy weapon developed by the U.S. military, for area denial, perimeter security, and crowd control.
- ALKA, possibly the first Directed-energy weapon to be used in combat by the Turkish armed forces.
- MEDUSA, a non-lethal microwave-based weapon.
- Practical application a big question
- The research into DEW’s is a financially draining task
- The practical applications of some DEW’s are questionable
- Counter against such weapons is not hard to come by. For example, laser beams can be weakened by water vapor and dust.
How dangerous are these weapons?
- People who have been subjected to have reported hearing a clicking or buzzing sound coming from within their heads.
- The symptoms included nausea, severe headaches, fatigue, dizziness, sleep problems, and hearing loss.
- It has both short- and long-term consequences, and it does so without causing physical harm.
Microwave weapons across the globe
- These weapons are believed to have been developed by several countries to attack both humans and electronic systems.
- China first displayed its “microwave arm,” the Poly WB-1, at an air show in 2014, according to a story.
- A British daily “The Times” reported that a Chinese professor had claimed that China used “microwave weapons” at two key hilltops at the border forcing Indian troops to retreat.
- However, India has denied reports about the use of microwave weapons by Chinese forces.
- United States –“Active Denial System.”
- The US deployed such a weapon in Afghanistan but withdrew it without ever using it against human targets.
- When the Iraq War of 2003 broke out, electromagnetic weapons, including high-power microwaves, were used by the U.S. military to disrupt and destroy Iraqi electronic systems and may have been used for crowd control.
- In the latter half of 2017, reports surfaced saying employees at the US embassy in Havana, Cuba, may have been targeted with a covert sonic weapon the previous year.
- Cuba had denied any knowledge of the illnesses even though the US had accused it of carrying out “sonic attacks”, leading to an increase in tensions.
- Subsequently, in 2018, staff at the US consulate in Guangzhou, China complained of a possible similar attack in 2017.
- The DRDO had announced in September 2020, that the organization will be carrying out its research into the feasibility of Directed Energy Weapons.
- Although decades of research has been conducted on the practical applications of such weapons, they are still believed to be in the experimental stage although a few prototypes have been claimed by certain countries to be operational.
- Concerns have been raised on whether they can damage the eyes, or have a carcinogenic impact in the long term.
- It is not clear yet whether these can kill or cause lasting damage to human targets.
Mains model question
- The use of non-lethal weapons for violence and mob control is a contested issue. Can you suggest some alternatives to it apart from the use of water cannon and tear gas?