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- GS 1 || History || MODERN HISTORY 1 (Mainstream Movement) || Rise of Extremists
Why in the news?
Taiwan remembers Subhash Chandra Bose
About Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose:
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was a zealous nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him one of India’s most famous freedom fighters. He is also credited with establishing the Indian Army as a separate body from the British Indian Army, which aided the independence movement.
Life of Subhas Chandra Bose:
- Subhas Chandra Bose was born in Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, on January 23, 1897, to PrabhavatiDutt Bose and Janakinath Bose.
- He went to Ravenshaw Collegiate School after finishing his early education. He went on to Presidency College in Calcutta, where he was expelled for his nationalist activities. Later, he attended the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.
- Bose was elected President of the Indian National Congress in Haripur in 1938, and campaigned for unqualified Swaraj (self-governance) and the use of force against the British which then combated against Mahatma Gandhi and his views.
- Bose was re-elected in Tripuri in 1939, but resigned from the presidency soon after to found the All India Forward Bloc, a Congress party aimed at uniting the political left.
- He died in a plane crash in Japanese-controlled Formosa on August 18, 1945. (Taiwan).
Subhash Chandra Bose’s role in India’s struggle for independence:
Subhaschandrabose was a prominent figure of Indian national movement, widely known as ‘Netaji’ for his immense and varied contribution to the cause of India’s Independence.
- Bose advocated an armed struggle for Indian independence against the British Empire vis-a-vis gandhi’s ideology of non-violence.
- He called for PurnaSwaraj at the Lahore session of INC in contrast to the demand of dominion status by moderates.
- In the later stages, INC parted ways with Bose due to his inclination towards fascism and revolutionary means.
- He wrote books like Indian Struggle and journals to spread his ideology to the common masses.
- Bose was the leader of younger, radical wing of INC in the late 920s and 1930s.
- He went on to become the president of the Indian National Congress in the year 1938 and 1939.
- He was the founder and president of All India forward bloc which demanded for complete independence.
- Formed provisional government of Free India i.e, Azad Hind in Germany.
- Led the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) in south-east comprised of Indian prisoner’s of war (POW).
- International support &mobilisation:
- Conducted a successful campaign to mobilise the support of the Indian communities throughout Southeast Asia.
- Collaborated with Soviet, Germans and Japanese (axis powers) to check the growth of British.
Vision and achievement of Bose:
Netaji Subhash Chandra bose envisioned free India, to not only be a political democracy but also a social and economic democracy. He wanted to establish a country that would be free from the vices of capitalism, is self-reliant, just and sensitive to the needs of the vulnerable. His contributions towards achieving the same-
- Worker’s movement: He was a key figure in the Tata steel workers’ strike, which resulted in a settlement.
- Importance of planning: Like his contemporaries, he was inspired by the Russian planning concept and founded the National Planning Commission under Jawaharlal Nehru’s leadership. He saw planning as a way to redistribute profits in the long run.
- Formation of the forward bloc: After resigning as president of Congress, he founded a left-wing party that still has a stronghold in West Bengal. He and the other representatives vowed to never surrender to the British and were hell-bent on driving the colonial powers out of their homeland.
- Gender neutrality: He fought the patriarchal mentality of Indian society by welcoming women not only to his party (forward bloc), but also to an all-women force in the Indian National Army (INA).
- Believed in a mutual brotherhood: He described patriotism as love for one’s own country and people. Suffering should result in suffering for the other, and glory should result in glory for the other. He was opposed to communal politics and claimed that all Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs should fight the common enemy together.
- Belief in courage and the ability of the country: He believed that Britishers a mighty force at the time could be defeated by an Indian national army. He travelled extensively defeating them at Manipur and also seeking japan’s help during World War II.
Bose and other leader- Difference in ideology:
Gandhiji and SubhashChandrabose both were great leaders contributed for the independence of India, though adopted different strategies based on their intellectual, spiritual and political maturity.
- Differences between approach of Gandhi and Bose
- Method of their struggle:Gandhi believed in peaceful means of struggle, which was outside the constitutional boundaries but use of arms or violence was strictly prohibited. Bose’s method was exact opposite with more emphasis on using arms and violence for obtaining freedom. He believed that India needed an armed struggle to get rid of the British.
- Participants and supporters: Gandhi commanded obedience from large section of common citizens regardless of their profession or residency, making his approach universal. Bose believed in Socialist ideology of armed struggle by peasants and workers, who would fight the British bourgeois and get rid of them.
- Timing of struggle: Gandhi felt that British had to be supported during the war so that they can defeat the fascist axial forces led by Germany, Italy and Japan. So he avoided conflict with British during the war. Subhash in contrast believed that the war was a perfect opportunity to strike the weakened British by taking help from their enemies. He felt that the war was a struggle between imperial powers and no one could be trusted. Instead he joined hands with Japan to attack British colonies in Asia.
- Complete independence vs. Independence in phase: Bose sought complete severance from British while Gandhi’s goal post vacillate between spiritual swaraj Dominion swaraj dominion status and complete surverance
- International outlook vs.Indigenous forcres: Netaji wanted to use international weapon of fighting and escape to Germany later took charge of INA in Singapore on the other Gandhiji used in indigenous forces like swadesi, non-cooperation, salt satyagrah, Charkha etc.
- Thus, Gandhi and Bose both followed their way of struggle for freedom movement. Eventhough India won freedom under the leadership of Gandhi, Bose’s contribution in weakening British Empire in subcontinent cannot be ignored.
Bose ideologies in present world:
- Netaji’s gestures and slogans are in Vogue still -“Jai Hind” and “KadamkadamBadhayeJaa” gives a sense of nationalism and patriotism to Indians.
- When India is grappling with intolerance and communal tensions, and the government fails to arrest social and communal disharmony, embracing Netaji’s ideology could be the need of the hour.
- Bose was a leader who fumed the word nationalism in every heart of India but in present time we can clearly see the dynamics of freedom and nationalism has totally converge
- In present time we can clearly see that the word Nationalism and anti-nationalist is often coin even if someone express there ideologies
- Freedom is now means, no restrictions, no rules to be followed if someone want, and if someone want to criticize the nation, national anthem they are all free to do so and taking action against such activity is violation of right provided by constitution
- Politics has now almost change from the era of Bose, Nehru and Gandhi and there is hardly and commonality is seen on any of the matter of nation rather all parties now tries to make their public appearance on different media to shine and become more like public figure then political leader
- The act of patriotism and feeling patriotic are things which will make for a stronger nation. Netaji was truly patriotic and believed that freedom is our birthright and we need to fight for it rather than begging for it.
- India a country that got independent on blood and life of great leaders is now become asset for many political leaders and public figure has made the country losing its ideologies given by leaders like boss
Mains oriented question:
Examine Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose’s contribution to India’s fight for independence.(200 words)