Art & Culture
- Judicial Appointments in India, Executive vs Collegium
- What is Vacation Bench of Indian Supreme Court?
- State Funding of Elections
- International Religious Freedom 2019 Report
- Election Commission invokes Article 324 in West Bengal
- Difference between exit poll and opinion poll
- Madras High Court verdict on Puducherry LG Kiran Bedi
- Zero Pendency Courts Project
- ECI & Dissenting opinion controversy
Governance & Social Justice
- Supreme Court upholds Karnataka law for SC ST reservation in promotions
- Under 5 mortality & low birth weight, Analysis of Lancet Global Health journal
- US public healthcare system
- Women Workforce Participation, Issues faced by Working Women in India
- What are Small Water Enterprises?
- Cancer-causing substance found in Johnson & Johnson’s
- Age of consent & age gap under POCSO Act
- Sub-categorisation within OBCs
- Booming Population of Africa, Can Africa reap benefits of Demographic Dividend?
- Developments in Indo Pacific Region
- Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action 2015 explained
- Pakistan to Accept $6 Billion Bailout From IMF
- USA ends waiver for India on Iran Oil
- What is US Executive Privilege?
- Presidential Impeachment in the USA
- Belt and Road forum,2019
- India re-elected as observer at Arctic Council
- US Iran Tension
- India Cuts Communication with UN Human Rights
- Russia’s Sovereign Internet law
- Narendra Modi Swearing in Ceremony
- Sri Lanka signs Port Deal with India and Japan
- China’s Rare Earth Minerals
- US removes India from Currency Monitoring List
- Banking crisis in India, How bad is Non Performing Asset issue?
- Boosting Private Investment in Economy
- Economic Slowdown in various sectors
- India US Trade Dispute, Is India a Tariff King?
- India USA pact to check tax evasion by MNCs
- PepsiCo vs Potato farmers controversy
- Record GST Collections, Rs. 1.13 trillion collected in April
- Rise in Foreign Exchange Reserve of India
- SBI links interest rate of large Savings Accounts to Repo Rate
- SEBI fines NSE over unfair broker access
- Trade Policy of India, How India can mitigate Global uncertainty?
- What are PSU Telecos & their issues? Should government shutdown BSNL & MTNL?
- What is Phased Manufacturing Programme?
- What is Seed Sovereignty? PepsiCo Vs Gujarat Potato Farmers Controversy
- Why India needs a dedicated Industrial Policy?
- Why India needs a new Poultry Policy?
- WTO Appellate Body Dispute Controversy
- Dollar Rupee Swap tool of RBI
- National Anti Profiteering Authority how it works?
- Tourism boost in India, Impact of Tourism on GDP
- Urban Development Schemes in India
- US trade order bending Global trading system
- What are Social Impact Bonds?
- Is India’s GDP data accurate?
- Middle income trap
- Ban on Chinese milk products in India
- Analysis of Draft Rules for Poultry Farming
- Economic Priorities for Modi 2.0 Government
- RBI draft Liquidity Risk Management Framework for NBFCs
- SEBI panel bats to ease FPI regulations
- USA bans Huawei
- What is Regulatory Sandbox?
Defence & Security
- Gadchiroli Naxal Attack, Is India fully prepared to eliminate Naxalism?
- Government extends ban on LTTE for another 5 years
- India Signs ‘Christchurch Call to Action’ Initiative
- White House bats for declaring Muslim Brotherhood as a Terrorist Organisation
- 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings
- ISIS influence in India
- Designation of Masood Azhar as global terrorist
- ISIS in Jammu & Kasmir
- Influence of Islamic State in India
- Human Rights Violations in J&K
- What is Skimming? Can ATM steal users personal data?
- Kashmir’s Most Wanted Militant Zakir Musa Killed
Science & Technology
- India gets its First Apache Guardian Attack Helicopter
- Asteroid Apophis will flyby Earth
- Blockchains for Internet of Things
- ISRO’s 5 satellites saved many lives from Cyclone Fani
- Made In India Aerial Target Drone ABHYAS DRDO
- NASA Dart Mission क्या है ? Asteroid Impact Mission of NASA
- Project Blue Moon क्या है? Know all about Jeff Bezos’ mission
- Project MANAV: Human Atlas Initiative क्या है?
- Radar Controversy Explained
- Scorpene Class Submarine INS Vela Launched
- World’s first Malaria Vaccine
- Economic Impacts of Antimicrobial Resistance report by IACG
- Monkey pox infection
- India to buy kamov 31 helicopter from Russia
- Indian scientists discover how serotonin helps brain cells cope with stress
- Genetic study on people of Lakshadweep Islands
- DRDO successfully test fires AKASH MK-1S missile
- Facial Recognition Technology how it works, What are its Pros & Cons?
- Indian Airforce to Use Biofuels
- Kilogram’s New Definition
- RISAT 2B Earth Observation Satellite launched by ISRO
- UN report- One million species at risk of extinction
- Indonesia will move its capital
- Antarctica’s Emperor Penguin population declines
- Ross Ice Shelf
- Chinese ban causes re-routing of plastic waste
- Hangul or Kashmir Stag’s rapid population decline
- Indian bullfrogs take to invasive behavior early in Andaman
- Ishad Mango Facing a Threat In Its Homeland
- Lakshadweep recruits Barn Owls to fight rodent menace
- Sunscreen Killing Coral Reefs?
- Yeti footprints spotted on Himalaya claims Army
- India, China lead global greening effort
- Herbivore census in Gujarat’s Gir forest
- Karnataka declares Bukkapatna as 2nd Chinkara Wildlife Sanctuary
- Do ‘Russian poplar’ seeds cause May illness in Kashmir?
Spice of the Month
Tag: GS 3 || Security || Internal Security Threats|| Terrorism
Why in news?
- The White House said that a proposal to designate the Muslim Brotherhood a foreign terrorist organisation was “working its way through the internal process”.
- The statement was linked to a meeting between Presidents Donald Trump and Abdel Fattah al-Sisi of Egypt in the White House in April 2019, during which the Egyptian leader urged the United States to impose sanction on the Brotherhood, which opposes his government.
- Also recently, the Trump administration designated Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) as a Foreign Terrorist Organisation (FTO).
- The designation, which imposed sweeping economic and travel sanctions on both the IRGC and on organisations, companies, and individuals that have links to it, went into force on April 15, 2019.
Foreign Terrorist Organisation (FTO)
- Section 219 of the United States Immigration and Nationality Act authorises the US Secretary of State to designate an organization as a foreign terrorist organization, if the Secretary finds that –
- the organization is a foreign organization;
- the organization engages in terrorist activity or terrorism, or
- threatens the security of United States nationals or the national security of the United States.
- Fight against terrorism: The State Department’s Bureau of Counterterrorism states that FTO designations play a critical role in (the US’s) fight against terrorism and are an effective means of curtailing support for terrorist activities and pressuring groups to get out of the terrorism business.
- Sixty-eight terrorist organisations currently figure on the US State Department’s list of FTOs, including Hamas, Hezbollah, al-Qaida and its regional branches, the Islamic State and its regional operations, Jundallah, Boko Haram, and the Colombian FARC.
- Also on the list are several organisations based in Pakistan and Afghanistan, which directly threaten India, such as the Jaish-e-Mohammad, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Hizb ul-Mujahideen, Haqqani Network, and Lashkar-e-Jhangvi.
- The Indian Mujahideen, LTTE, and Harkat-ul Jihad al-Islami-Bangladesh are also on the list of FTOs.
- They are a movement that was founded in Egypt in 1928 by a schoolteacher named Hassan al-Banna, who preached that an Islamic religious revival would help Muslim nations improve their situation and defeat their colonial masters.
- While Hassan al-Banna was not specific about the kind of Muslim revivalist government he was advocating, his ideas travelled all over the world, and inspired a large number of Islamist groups and movements — not just political movements and parties, but also powerful missionary and charitable initiatives.
- Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Morocco, Turkey and Tunisia are among the countries that have large parties that trace their origins to the Brotherhood.
- Not all of today’s movements and organisations call themselves the Muslim Brotherhood, however.
- Armed wing: In the 1940s, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood created an armed wing, and in 1948, one of its members killed the Prime Minister, Mahmoud Fahmy el-Nokrashy Pasha.
- Hassan al-Banna denounced the killers as “neither Brothers nor Muslims”, and in the 1960s, the Brotherhood formally announced they were only “preachers”.
- There is a broad consensus among historians and analysts now that the Egyptian Brotherhood, as an organisation at least, has not undertaken violent action since then.
- Split: After the military takeover in Cairo in 2013, however, some factions of the Egyptian Brotherhood such as Hasm and Liwa al-Thawra have broken off and carried out violence against the government.
- These two groups have already been designated as FTOs by the US.
- But President Al-Sisi accuses the Brotherhood as a whole of supporting and carrying out terrorism, something the Brotherhood denies.
- Outside Egypt, Hamas, an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood which the US has designated as an FTO, carries out bombings and rocket attacks on Israeli civilians.
- Ayman al-Zawahiri, the fugitive leader of al-Qaeda, is a former member of the Egyptian Brotherhood — however, he has assailed the non-violent position taken by the Brotherhood; the Brotherhood has, likewise, strongly criticised al-Qaeda.
- Crosshairs: All over the world, Muslim Brotherhood movements have been advocating democratic elections, which have put them in the crosshairs of both authoritarian ruling regimes as well as militant Islamists.
- In Egypt, the Brotherhood has been in Parliament since in the 1980s, and after President Hosni Mubarak was removed in 2011, it did well in the parliamentary election, one of its leaders, Mohamed Morsi, became President.
- However, Parliament was dissolved in 2012, and Morsi was ousted the following year.
- What is Muslim Brotherhood? Why does US want to designate it as a ‘terrorist organisation’?