English Hindi


Prelims Capsule

Prelims bits

Prelims Bits (3rd Week)

Environment and Ecology:

Blue Finned Mahseer removed from IUCN Red List 

  • Context: The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) recently downgraded the classification of the Blue-finned Mahseer from Endangered to Least Concern on its Red List.
  • About: The Mahseer is a member of the genus Tor, which has numerous subspecies found in India and other South Asian range nations. The Blue-finned Mahseer, also known as the Tor Khudree, is a subspecies of the Mahseer.
  • It’s a silvery-bluish fish with blood-red fins or fins that are tipped with blood.
  • It has a blue hue to it. The Blue Finned Mahseer is an indicator species that is extremely sensitive to dissolved oxygen.
  • Oxygen levels, water temperature, and abrupt climate changes are all factors to consider. It’s just that
  • Pollution is too much for me. As a result, due of its primary function, it serves as an indication of ecosystem health.
  • A clean and pure environment is required. The Mula-Mutha River, which is part of the Krishna River basin and adjacent to the Indian city of Pune, is home to the Blue Finned Mahseer. It can also be found in other Deccan Plateau rivers. The species is migratory, and when it rains, it migrates upstream.

Save Buxwaha Forest online campaign gathers momentum:

  • Context: Nationwide online campaign launched for conservation of Buxwaha forest
  • About: On the eve of World Environment Day, a nationwide online campaign was launched for the conservation of Buxwaha forest by the without Nature Dark Future group, whose main objective is to save the forests of Buxwaha from being cut down for diamond mining.
  • More than 5,000 youths from across the country participated in the campaign and different videos of this campaign have been viewed by more than one million people on social media platforms.
  • Buxwaha’s Bunder Diamond Mining Project:
  • Bunder Diamond Block is a Greenfield Mining Project covering an area of 364 Ha in Buxwaha Protected Forest and located near Village Sagoria of Buxwaha Tehsil in Chhatarpur District of Madhya Pradesh.
  • The project is about 80 Kms from Chhatarpur, the district headquarters and 260 Km from Bhopal the state capital.
  • The project has been explored by M/s Rio Tinto Exploration India Private Limited (one of the largest mining company in the world).
  • The estimated resources in the block is around 53.70 Million Tonne of Kimberlite Ore containing about 34 Million Carats of rough Diamonds.

Brood X Cicadas swarm spotted in a number of American states:

  • Context: Swarm of cicadas bombarded the plane Air Force One, which was about to take off for the UK.
  • About: Swarms of these insects have been spotted in a number of American states.
  • These are part of a group named Brood X, based on their life cycles and periodic appearances.
  • The cicadas in Brood X number in billions and come out of their underground homes every 17 years.
  • Cicadas live underground for extended periods of time, typically 13 or 17 years, and feed on roots of trees both underground and above it.
  • The term ‘brood’ refers to a population of cicadas that is isolated from other populations because of differences in their year of emergence or locality.
  • Brood X is the largest brood of 17-year cicadas and is found in Pennsylvania, northern Virginia, Indiana and eastern Tennessee, according to the US National Park Service (NPS).
  • Last year, another grouping of 17-year cicadas dubbed Brood IX emerged in some states on the east coast of the US.

Sea Snot in Turkey:

  • Context: Turkey is becoming increasingly concerned about the environment. Deposit of sea snot,’ a sticky coating of grey or green muck in the ocean’s surface country’s oceans, which can cause significant damage to the marine environment ecosystem.
  • About: The first epidemic of ‘sea snot’ in the nation happened in 2007. It was also seen near Greece in the Aegean Sea around the time.
  • Warm weather induced by global warming, water pollution, unregulated dumping of domestic and industrial waste into the ocean, and other factors all contribute to nutrient overload.
  • Divers have reported that it has killed a large number of fish, as well as other aquatic species such as corals.
  • The mucilage has already covered the sea’s surface and has also extended to depths of 80-100 feet. If left unchecked, it might sink to the bottom and cover the sea floor, wreaking havoc on the marine life.

Art and Culture:

Researchers discover largest handmade drawing in Thar Desert:

  • About: World’s Largest Handmade Drawings Discovered In Thar; Surpass Peru’s Nazca Enigma
  • Context: These were depictions of various plants, animals and shapes drawn with over 800 straight lines, some as long as 48 km.
  • These included depictions of spiders, hummingbirds, cacti, monkeys, whales, llamas, ducks, flowers, trees, lizards and dogs.
  • These came to be known as the now famous Nazca Lines, which are geoglyphs designs or motifs produced on the ground by moving or arranging objects on a landscape that are over 2,000 years old, created somewhere between 500 BC and AD 500.
  • These were made by creating shallow incisions or depressions in the desert floor by removing pebbles to leave different colored dirt exposed.


India’s Forex Reserves cross record $600 billion mark for 1st time:

  • Context: India’s foreign exchanges rose past the $600-billion-mark, helped by the pandemic year when a slush of global liquidity moved towards emerging markets in search of yield.
  • About: India’s foreign exchange reserves rose to $605 billion, from $598 billion the week before.
  • Reserves have risen by close to $130 billion since March-end 2020, when the Covid crisis accelerated around the world, prompting central banks to unleash a wall of liquidity to stabilize economies.
  • With reserves at levels considered more than adequate, will the RBI be less aggressive in buying foreign exchange? Experts doesn’t think so.
  • Recent policy commentary has suggested that reserve accretion is a priority for the central bank.
  • “This suggests that there isn’t necessarily any threshold that they are looking to satisfy, but see it necessary to strengthen this cushion at least for the duration of the ultra-loose global policies.”


Lynetteholm Island

  • Context: Denmark just approved the construction of Lynetteholm, an artificial island off the coast of Copenhagen (Denmark’s capital, located near the Baltic Sea).
  • About: The 35,000-person project, which spans 275 acres, was conceived as a housing and business hub.
  • It will be constructed with earth from Copenhagen and the neighboring region development projects.
  • Material transportation by road will necessitate a high number of automobiles. Once work begins, around 350 lorry rides will be necessary every day through Copenhagen.
  • The effects of sediment movement at sea on water quality and ecosystems in the Baltic Sea environment.
  • Following this, a complaint against Lynette Holm’s development has been lodged with the European Court of Justice.

Science and Technology:


  • Context: Biogen’s Aducanumab (Aduhelm) is a new medicine authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating multiple sclerosis. Alzheimer’s disease is an illness that affects people.
  • About: Although Aduhelm is not a cure, it does help to slow down cognitive deterioration. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the buildup of trash in the brain produced by the destruction of neurons, which results in plaque formation.
  • As a result, Aducanumab is intended to lower the levels of amyloid beta, a protein that causes plaques in the brain.
  • Aducanumab seeks to change the course of the illness by lowering plaque development and decreasing the decline of brain function.

Government scheme and Initiative:

SAGE initiative and SAGE portal:

  • Context: To assist India’s elderly, the Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment created the SAGE (Senior Care Aging Growth Engine) programme and SAGE site.
  • About: The SAGE Initiative and SAGE Portal were created with the goal of providing “one-stop access” to aged care. All aged care goods and services produced by respectable start-ups will be accessible through the platform.
  • This programme will be facilitated by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
  • The project intends to assist entrepreneurs who are interested in delivering aged care services.
  • An unbiased screening group of professionals will choose the startups.
  • The companies will be chosen by the committee based on their innovative goods and services in a variety of industries. Health, housing, child care, food, financial management, and legal advice are just a few examples.
  • Each selected start-up would get a one-time equity capital of up to Rs 1 crore.

Haryana Government’s Pran Vayu Devta Pension Scheme & Oxy Van Scheme:

  • Context: Chief Minister of Haryana, Manohar Lal Khattar, announced to create of 80 acres of ‘Oxi-van’ (a forest) in the Karnal district. It was announced on the occasion of World Environment Day on June 5, 2021. Oxi-van will consist of 10 types of forests.
  • About: The Pran Vayu Devta Pension Scheme (PVDPS) is a project to honor all trees that are 75 years old or older. They have assisted humankind by creating oxygen, lowering pollution, giving shade, and so on throughout their lives.
  • Such trees will be located around the state, and they will be cared for by enlisting the help of local residents.
  • Oxy Van has identified land plots on which up to 3 crore trees would be planted.
  • The Oxy Vans will occupy ten percent of Haryana’s 8 lakh hectares of land.
  • The project’s overall cost will be Rs 1 crore.

G7 Summit 2021 PM Modi calls for One Earth One Health approach for Covid Pandemic:

  • Context: PM Narendra Modi virtually took part in an outreach session of the G7 summit and Articulated the “One Earth, One Health” mantra for global cooperation to fight the Covid-19 pandemic as well as future pandemics.
  • About: PM virtually joined the G7 leaders, who assembled at Cornwall in South West England for a summit of the bloc.
  • India, however, is not a member of the G7, which comprises Japan, Italy, France, Germany, Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom, with the European Union being a ‘non-enumerated’ member of the bloc.
  • The Prime Minister was however invited by his counterpart in the UK, Boris Johnson, to attend the outreach session held on the sideline of the summit.