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SDG Gender Index 2019

SDG Gender Index 2019

Tag: GS 2 || Governance & Social Justice || Vulnerable Sections || Women

Why in news?

  • A new index to measure global gender equality, launched recently, ranks India at 95th among 129 countries.

SDG Gender Index

  • The SDG Gender Index comes close on the heels of the gender gap index of the World Economic Forum where India was ranked 108th.
  • Equal Measures 2030: The SDG Gender Index has been developed by Equal Measures 2030, a joint effort of regional and global organisations including African Women’s Development and Communication Network, Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and International Women’s Health Coalition.
  • It accounts for 14 out of 17 SDGs (sustainable development goals) that cover aspects such as poverty, health, education, literacy, political representation and equality at the workplace.
  • A score of 100 reflects the achievement of gender equality in relation to the targets set for each indicator.
    • It means, for example, that 100% of girls complete secondary education, or that there is around 50-50 parity for women and men in Parliament.
  • A score of 50 signifies that a country is about halfway to meeting a goal.

Key findings

  • Global average: The global average score of the 129 countries — which represent 95% of the world’s girls and women — is 65.7 out of 100 (“poor” in the index).
    • The ranking found that the world is far from achieving gender equality with 1.4 billion girls and women living in countries that get a “very poor” grade.
    • Altogether, 2.8 billion girls and women live in countries that get either a “very poor” (59 and below) or “poor” score (60-69) on gender equality.
  • 8% good gender equality: Just 8% of the world’s population of girls and women live in countries that received a “good” gender equality score (80-89).
  • No country achieved an “excellent” overall score of 90 or above.
  • Not all countries’ scores on the index correlate with national income-some countries perform better than would be expected based on their GDP per capita, and others underperform.
  • India performs about as expected based on GDP per capita.

Key findings for India

  • India’s highest goal scores are on –
    • health (79.9),
    • hunger & nutrition (76.2), and
    • energy (71.8).
  • Its lowest goal scores are on –
    • partnerships (18.3, in the bottom 10 countries worldwide),
    • industry, infrastructure and innovation (38.1), and
    • climate (43.4).
  • On indicators that define such goals, India scored 95.3 on the percentage of female students enrolled in primary education who are overage.
  • Some of India’s lowest scores on indicators include the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (score 23.6; women made up 11.8% of Parliament in 2018).
    • On seats held by women in the Supreme Court (4%), India has a score of 18.2.
  • On gender-based violence, indicators include –
    • proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 18 (27.3%),
    • women who agreed that a husband/partner is justified in beating his wife/partner under certain circumstances (47.0%), and
    • women aged 15+ who reported that they “feel safe walking alone at night in the city or area where she lives” (69.1%).

Mains question

  • Sustainable development will be an impossibility without the potential contributions from women. Comment.