English Hindi


Prelims Capsule

Indian Society

How Covid 19 pandemic has changed the nature of Globalization?

How Covid 19 pandemic has changed the nature of Globalization?


  • GS 3 || Indian Society || Globalization || Dimensions of Globalization

Why in the news?

Covid-19 spread worldwide since 2019 and is continuing after almost 1 year it has left its immense impact worldwide and impact on globalization is a matter of concern and bounce back to normalcy is needed to maintain balance globally in all aspects.

Understanding Globalization:

  • Globalization, sometimes known as globalization, is the connection and integration of people, businesses, and governments all over the world. Because of advancements in transportation and communication technologies, globalization has increased since the 18th century.

Impact of COVID on globalization:

  • Present Scenario: There is no question that the globe is experiencing a worldwide recession, which some experts believe will affect 10% or more of global GDP. The speed at which a V-shaped recovery may occur is still up for discussion. However, regardless of the economic downturn, globalization in the form of goods and service flows will be harmed.
  • Global Economic Issue: In its annual Economic and Social Survey, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) stated that the Covid-19 crisis is a challenge never seen before, and that it will be a larger shock to the world economy than the global financial crisis (GFC).
  • Spread of disease: The way we work and earn a living has changed as a result of globalization. As a result, commerce and transportation have been identified as key drivers of disease spread. Furthermore, the increased urbanization and greater integration of the international economy have aided global interconnectivity.
  • Globalization has now established itself as a significant disease transmission mechanism. COVID-19’s potential impact on globalization and global health in terms of migration, commerce, travel, and the nations most impacted.

COVID-19’s influence on globalization in terms of mobility, economy, and healthcare systems, as measured by statistics on 1) mobility and travel resources, 2) economy and workforce, 3) healthcare capacity, and 4) country-level health vulnerability A Pandemic Vulnerability Index was calculated to look at health vulnerability (PVI).

  • Individual mobility and its size were determined using airline and seaport trade data as well as trip information. The workforce, event cancellations, food and agriculture, academic institutions, and supply chain were all used to calculate the economic effect.
  • Unprecedented burden: Through travel, event cancellation, employment workforce, food chain, education, and healthcare capacity, the pandemic has imposed an unprecedented pressure on the international economy, healthcare, and globalization.
  • Vulnerable countries: South Africa and Egypt were more vulnerable countries in Africa; Russia, Germany, and Italy were more vulnerable in Europe; India, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey were more vulnerable in Asia and Oceania; and Brazil, the United States, Chile, Mexico, and Peru were more vulnerable in the Americas.

Some other factors which are affecting the future of globalization:

  • There are many definitions of globalization from simple to complex, from multidimensional to one-dimensional and from unambiguous. The aim of this section is to clarify the concept and then to demonstrate the development process and form of globalization
  • Factors influencing Globalization are as follows: (1) Historical (2) Economy (3) Resources and Markets (4) Production Issues (5) Political (6) Industrial Organization (7) Technologies.
    • Historical: Over time, trade routes were established so that products from one kingdom or country could be transported to another. A good example of a historical element is the well-known silk route from east to west.
    • Economy: The mobility of products and value addition are determined by the cost of goods and values to the end user. Globalization takes into account the entire economics of a specific sector or trade. Globalization is defined by the United Nations as the expansion of links across societies. This epidemic will mostly affect developing countries. Almost every developing country’s current GDP growth rate is lower than its prior pace. For this type of economy, foreign investment, export, and employment are the most important factors. As a result, their economy will implode.
    • Resources and Markets: Minerals, coal, oil, gas, human resources, water, and other natural resources play a significant role in globalisation. The effect of countries safeguarding their own and enacting programs to increase local employment at the expense of imports would exacerbate the decline in global demand.
    • Production Issues: A manufacturing company’s ability to use built-up production capacity, as well as sluggishness in the home market and overproduction, causes it to seek abroad and become global. A typical example is the growth of international markets and production plants for automobiles, four-wheelers, and two-wheelers.
    • Political: Globalization is channeled according to political bosses due to a country’s political concerns. The breadth of globalization is determined by regional trade agreements or understandings. Examples include trading in the European Union, special agreements in the former Soviet bloc, and SAARC. Big rivals are attempting to profit from the epidemic. One may observe the current scenario between China and Hong Kong, China and India, and North and South Korea.
    • Industrial Organisation: Organizations are able to extend their operations thanks to technology advancements in the areas of manufacturing, product mix, and businesses. In the globalisation process, the employment of services and the purchase of sub-assemblies and components have a significant impact.
    • Technologies: Import or export of products or services from or to a country is determined by the development of technology in a specific area. In the 1950s and 1960s, European nations such as England and Germany sold their chemical, electrical, and mechanical factories as well as high-tech (then) commodities to developing countries. India is now exporting computer and software-related services to sophisticated countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States. E-commerce, cloud computing, and online banking are just a few examples of businesses that have witnessed a surge in activity since the COVID-19 epidemic.
  • Tourism and hospitality: The tourist and hotel industries, as well as airlines, are expected to be particularly badly impacted. It’s uncertain if a return to the old status quo will ever occur in their instance or others involving people mobility, since acceptance of and familiarity with digital technology may result in a new equilibrium.
  • Human Society: World shall witness a new sort of globe fresh breeze compared to before the epidemic, family-friend new face, vacation location, and university for human civilization to review call to restart after this outbreak.
  • Globalization may have a detrimental influence on trade of products and some services, such as travel, while other industries may see increased demand. More remote work will only increase the flow of data and scattered yet readily traded professional services across borders. As a result, not only the producers of these services will benefit, but also the facilitators such as Zoom and bandwidth providers.


The notion of globalization, which has a variety of aspects and meanings, has a big impact on economic statistics. Globalization handles economic innovations and advances in the development process. It is not enough to take steps to ensure the integration of countries with the world. It has become necessary for countries to enhance their economic and institutional systems in order to reap the benefits of globalization. To reap the benefits of globalization, developed-country-specific economic, social, and political policies must be implemented in concert. The execution of national economic strategies based on a robust production structure will help countries develop.

Mains oriented question:

Globalization is a highly complex and multi-form phenomenon affecting almost every aspect of social life. In context of that comment how Covid-19 has affected the globalization. (250 words)