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India submitted sixth national report to Convention on Biological Diversity

India submitted sixth national report to Convention on Biological Diversity

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  • GS 3 || Evironment || Governance: International||Conventions & Protocols

Why in News?

  • India submitted its sixth national report (NR6) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) highlighting the progress it has made in achieving the 12 National Biodiversity Targets (NBT) set under the convention process.

Basic Info

  • India was among the first five countries in the world, the first in Asia and the first among the biodiversity-rich mega-diverse countries to have submitted NR6 to the CBD Secretariat.
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) provides the framework of an international law, recognising conservation of biological diversity as an integral part of the development process.
  • The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is aimed at conserving biological diversity, sustainably using biological components and fair and equitable sharing of benefits (with local or indigenous communities) that may arise out of the utilisation of genetic resources.
  • While globally, biodiversity is facing increasing pressure on account of habitat fragmentation and destruction, invasive alien species, pollution, climate change and overuse of resources, India is one of the few countries where forest cover is on the rise, with its forests teeming with wildlife.

Highlights-Sixth National Report

  • Report was submitted online to Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
  • India has exceeded/overachieved two National Biodiversity Targets (NBT), it is on track to achieve eight National Biodiversity Targets (NBT) and in respect of the remaining two National Biodiversity Targets (NBT) also, India is striving to meet the targets by the stipulated time of 2020.
  • According to the report, India has exceeded the terrestrial component of 17 per cent of Aichi target 11, and 20 per cent of corresponding NBT relating to areas under biodiversity management.
  • India had been investing a huge amount of biodiversity directly or indirectly through several development schemes to the tune of Rs 70,000 crore
  • Sustainable management of agriculture, fisheries and forests.
  • Maintain genetic diversity of cultivated plants, farm livestock and their wild relatives.
  • Mechanisms and enabling environment are being created for recognising and protecting the vast heritage of coded and oral traditional knowledge relating to biodiversity.

Background-Aichi  Targets

  • The NR6 provides an update of progress in the achievement of 12 National Biodiversity
  • Targets (NBT) developed under the convention process in line with the 20 global Aichi biodiversity targets.
  • The ‘Aichi Targets’ were adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) at its Nagoya conferenc
  • The short term plan provides a set of 20ambitious yet achievable targets, collectively known as the Aichi Targets.
  • Aichi Targets = 20 targets, divided into 5 sections (A to E)
  • Strategic goal A

Address the causes of underlying biodiversity loss by maintaining loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society.

  • Strategic Goal B

Reduce the direct pressure on biodiversity and promote sustainable use.

  • Strategic Goal C

To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity

  • Strategic Goal D

Biodiversity  benefits to all

  • Strategic Goal E

Enhance the implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management, and capacity building.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

  • The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), a legally binding treaty to conserve biodiversity has been in force since 1993.

It has 3 main objectives:

  • The conservation of biological diversity.
  • The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity.
  • The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
  • Nearly all countries have ratified it (notably, the US has signed but not ratified).
  • The CBD Secretariat is based in Montreal, Canada and it operates under the United Nations Environment Programme.
  • The Parties (Countries) under Convention of Biodiversity (CBD), meet at regular interval and these meetings are called Conference of Parties (COP).

Wildlife growth 

  • The population of Lion, has risen to over 520 in 2015, and elephants to 30,000 in 2015.
  • One-horned Indian Rhino which was on the brink of extinction during the early 20th century, now number 2400.

Additional Info-Convention , Protocol and Treaty

Terms Treaty Protocol Convention
Definition An international agreement between two parties, members or even nations. A document that is legally binding that allows alterations and amendments to main treaty A convention is something that happens prior to a treaty being formed.

A convention can also mean a treaty among a number of countries.

 

Legally Binding Yes Yes Yes
Example Global Plan of action to combat trafficking in persons Kyoto Protocol Geneva Convention
  • Protocol: A protocol is an agreement that diplomatic negotiators formulate and sign as the basis for a final convention or treaty. The treaty itself may not be completed for many years.
  • Conventions: A convention begins as an international meeting of representatives from many nations that results in general agreement about procedures or actions they take on specific topics (e.g., wetlands, endangered species, etc.).
  • The term treaty refers to an international agreement between two parties, members or even nations. People ‘convene’ or come together to decide and agree on the issue before it is published in a legal, binding document or a treaty. A document that is legally binding that allows alterations and amendments to the main treaty.

Mains Question

  • What is  India’s commitment towards conserving Biodiversity.Comment.