- 10% Quota for general category
- NITI Aayog proposes all India Judicial Service Examination
- CAG Report on government spending
- Need for Citizenship (Amendment) Bill
- Clause 6 of Assam accord : indepth analysis
- Collegium system for appointment of judges
- Fear of Executive Courts
- Tamilnadu Reservation Policy
Governance & Social Justice
- Bhasha Sangam Program : Celebration of Linguistic Diversity
- Cabinet approves revision in list of scheduled tribes of Arunachal Pradesh
- Does India need a coal commission?
- Concerns in Ayushman Bharat
- Depression at workplaces : A major health issue in India
- How to bridge Gender gap in India : Mckinsey Global Institute Report
- Government plans to rename Indian Forest Service
- IGOT Program for Competent Civil Services
- Indian Medical Council Amendment Bill 2018
- National Commission for Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy
- Government bats for National Medical Devices Promotion Council
- Parental consent for vaccination
- India Signs Agreement with OECD for PISA 2021
- Kerala’s wall of resistance
- Should an IAS officer use Social Media?
- Social media addiction
- Legal Status for SSC
- Tripal Talaq Bill 2018
- Web Wonder Women Campaign by Ministry of WCD
- West Bengal Leaves Ayushman Bharat : In-depth Analysis
- Why Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Is Important For India
- What Is The Asia Reassurance Initiative Act
- E-Passport for Indians
- What Is G-77
- Failed Coup In Gabon
- Bagladesh Election
- Powering South Asian Integration
- ISRO’S New Station In Bhutan
- Kenya Replace Pictures Of Leaders on Coins With Animal
- Macedonia Name Change
- Why Norway Is Important For India
- Why India Need Membership Of NSG
- Pakistan Declared A Hindu Temple A Heritage Site
- Raisina Dialogue 2019
- India’s Republic Day Guest
- India To Take Over Sittwe Port Operation In Myanmar
- U.S. Mexico Border
- US Government Shutdown
- US Venezuela Crisis
- What is Angel Investment?
- Byorung Bridge
- India’s Airport Privatization Plan
- Rationalisation of GST Rates
- 1st Advance Estimates of Economic Growth by CSO
- Democracy Index 2018
- E-DRISHTI Software by Ministry of Railways
- What is GAFA tax
- Ganga Expressway to be Built in UP
- Green-Ag Project launched by India with UN FAO
- Issue of Tax Evasion under GST
- Improvements under GST Regime
- ICAT Certification for Automobilies
- What is Indian Bridge management System?
- Draft Information Technology Amendmenet Rules 2018
- Jamrani multipurpose DAM Project
- What is KALIA Scheme?
- MANDAL DAM
- Mega Merger!
- MSP for minor forest produce
- NITI Aayog suggestions on farm Economy
- India’s first vertical-lift Bridge
- Paradip Hyderabad pipeline
- Measures to address issues in Sugar industry
- Capital infusion in PSBs
- Renukaji dam
- PM Modi inaugrates Rice Research Institute
- Section 74 of the insolvency and Bankruptcy Code
- Social & Environmental Cost of Building dams
- Solar feeder Maharashtra model
- RBI Tokenisation
- Sikkim-Universal basic income
- Global Risks Report 2019
Science & Technology
- Why Beech Trees Dying
- Beat Plastic Pollution Resolve by India
- Why USA Is Killings California Sea Lions
- Carbon Tax
- China’s War On Particulate Air Pollution Is Causing More Serve Ozone Pollution
- CITES Washington Convention
- Coastal Regulation Zone
- Melting Ice Sheets And Release Of methane
- National Clean Air Programme Feature &Critical Analysis
- Oceans Are Heating Up 40% Faster Than Previous Estimates
- Revival Of Iran’s Lake Urmia
- India submitted sixth national report to Convention on Biological Diversity
- How Wild Fire Affect crop and vegetation Production
- NITI Aayog’s SDG Index
Spice of the Month
- GS 3 || Science & Technology || Biotechnology || Human Genome & DNA
Why in News?
- The Bill that provides for the regulation of the use and application of DNA technology for establishing the identity of certain categories of persons, including offenders, victims, suspects and undertrials, was passed in LokSabha.
What is DNA Technology?
- The use of DNA data is also likely to be useful in quickly identifying missing persons and resolving criminal cases in which repeat offenders might be
- DNA technology is the study and manipulation of genetic materials.
- Scientists are using DNA technology for a wide variety of
- A major component of DNA technology is cloning, which is the process of making multiple, identical copies of a gene.
- DNA technology is useful in the production of vaccines and protein therapies such as human insulin, interferon and human growth hormone.
- It is also used for treating hemophilia and in the development of gene therapy.
- New DNA based technologies emerged: – PLR, Recombinant DNA, Cloning, DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy, DNA profiling, DNA microarray technology.
- The DNA profiling was used in the Rajiv Gandhi case and later DNA fingerprinting in the tandoor murder case.
- But from 2007 onwards, India is lagging behind, largely because people had some questions and issues regarding privacy.
Key Features Of The Bill
- Procedures -“Home Ministry” recently circulated a set of guidelines on how to search crime scenes and collect, store and transport DNA samples.
- But considering the lack of expertise within our police departments and the carefree attitude for procedural compliances, there are imminent risks.
- Accreditation – As many errors occur before samples get to the laboratory, there is a requirement quality assurance in the bill.
- Consideration should be given to an independent forensic science regulator, who should oversee the certification for preventing contamination.
- Regulator – The Bill’s proposed “DNA Regulatory Board” is too powerful and seems insufficiently transparent or accountable.
- Hence, these needs to be fixed and an independent ethics board should be set up to rule on aspects of privacy and other moral concerns.
- Safeguards – The Bill allows for involuntary collection of DNA samples from suspects of criminal cases with certain restrictions.
Use and Application
- The primary intended purpose of the enactment of the bill is for expanding the application of DNA-based forensic technologies to support and strengthen the justice delivery system of the country.
- The utility of DNA based technologies for solving crimes, and to identify missing persons, is well recognized across the world.
- Other aims include Speedier justice delivery and Increased conviction
- Bill’s provisions will enable the cross-matching between persons reported missing and unidentified dead bodies found in various parts of the country, and also for establishing the identity of victims in mass disasters.
- By providing for the mandatory accreditation and regulation of DNA laboratories, the Bill seeks to ensure the data remain protected from misuse or abuse in terms of the privacy rights of our citizens.
- Privacy issues: Concerns over privacy or misuse of information still prevail.
- The Issue of security: Profiling standard as a means to protecting privacy in its report- This standard has yet to find its way in the text of the Bill.
- It has been pointed out that information like ancestry or susceptibility to a disease or other genetic traits is liable to be misused.
- It has been said that DNA Profiling has not led to an improvement in conviction rates in countries where it is already being followed.
- AP Shah Committee’s suggestions to facilitate opt in-opt out with regard to providing personal information should be heeded.
- Malimath Committee’s report on criminal justice reform should be adhered to while authorizing DNA profiling of individuals.
- Instead of an over-arching regulator, it should provide a hierarchical system of checks in order to ensure accountability and safeguard privacy rights.
- Lessons should be learned from experiences of developed countries as over-reliance on DNA profiling could backfire.
Additional Info-Laws in other Countries
- The National Criminal Procedure Code was amended in 2009 to provide for a uniform approach to DNA testing in cases of illegal adoption and falsification of identity
- They have established a National Bank of Genetic Data and DNA.
- United States of America
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation designed the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) with the purpose of amalgamating forensic sciences and computer technology into an effective apparatus for solving serious crimes.
- China passed a law allowing the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Interior to establish DNA Banks.
- DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018 is right in intent, but bereft of safeguards, can be misutilized. Critically analyze.