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Bali’s Mount Agung latest eruption

Bali’s Mount Agung latest eruption

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  • GS 3 || Disaster Management || Major Disasters || Volcanoes

Why in news?

  • Mount Agung, located at the Bali island of Indonesia is showing tendencies of eruption. It is exhuming since 2017.

Mount Agung’s Eruptions and Humans

  • Mount Agung has been erupting periodically since it rumbled back to life in 2017.
  • Several villages in Bali were covered in a thin layer of ash but no smoke or lava was detected coming from the crater and no evacuation has been ordered
  • Alert for cold lava flows — a type of mudflow that can form from rock and ash in the rainy season and which is often a prelude to the blazing orange lava of popular imagination.
  • On December 22, an eruption from Anak Krakatoa triggered a tsunami which hit the western tip of the neighbouring island of Java and southern Sumatra, killing at least 426 and leaving more than 7,000 injured.

 Mount Agung and Its Plate Tectonics

  • The volcanoes of Java, Bali, and many other Indonesian islands have been formed by interactions between the Australia and Sunda tectonic plates.
  • The Australia Plate is moving towards the north-northeast at an average rate of about 70 millimetres per year.
  • The Sunda Plate is moving towards the west-northwest at an average rate of about 21 millimeters per year. These two plates are in collision about 200 miles south of the island of Java to form the Sunda-Java Trench.
  • Many volcanoes in Indonesia have been formed by interactions between the Australia and Sunda tectonic plates.
  • At the Sunda-Java Trench, the Australia Plate subducts beneath the Sunda Plate and begins its descent into the mantle. The Australia Plate begins to melt when it reaches a depth of about 100 miles. Hot and molten materials then begin rising towards the surface and erupt to form the volcanoes of the Indonesian
  • Magma produced from the melting Australia Plate rises to form the volcano.

 Prelims bits -Mount Agung

  • Active volcano located on the island of Bali in the Indonesia island arc.
  • Highest point on the island of Bali at an elevation of 9944 feet.
  • Could be hazardous to nearly a million people who live within a 20-mile (30-kilometer) radius of the mountain.
  • The 1963-1964 eruption at Mount Agung was one of the largest volcanic eruptions of the 20th Century.
  • Mount Agung is located above a sub-duction zone formed where the Australia Plate descends beneath the Sunda Plate.