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Why the Great Minds of India are leaving the country?

Why the Great Minds of India are leaving the country?


  • GS 3 || Economy || Structure of the Indian Economy || Other Indices & Reports

Why in news?

Great Minds of India are leaving the country

Understanding brain drain:

  • The phrase “brain drain” refers to the migration of highly trained and skilled human labour from regions where it is most required in the pursuit of financial gain or professional advancement.
  • According to an IIM Bangalore report, India’s total proportion of brain drain has increased by 256 percent in less than a decade.
  • Globally, migration outflow from Asia to the United States, Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom increased during the 1990s, owing to increased demand for IT professionals and skilled brains in Science and Technology, as well as immigration policies that favour a group of skilled and qualified technocrats.
  • Brain drain happens in significant numbers in rising countries like India because the competition for a spot in world-class schools has intensified, and the admission rate cutoff has grown to around 100%.

Reasons behind migration at alarming rates are:

  • Throughout history, humans have always relocated in quest of better opportunities, and nation-state formation could only control this to a certain amount.
  • Institutions that are lacking in terms of global exposure, infrastructure, faculty, and equipment.
  • Political instability
  • Lack of possibilities
  • High salary in western nations
  • Intellectual Property Rights difficulties in India are one of the key reasons for scholars and others to leave from here.

Effects of Brain Drain:

  • Tax revenue is lost.
  • Potential future entrepreneurs are being lost.
  • There is a scarcity of vital, skilled workers.
  • The exodus may result in a lack of faith in the economy, prompting people to
  • Innovative ideas are being lost.
  • The country’s investment in education has been squandered.
  • Critical health and education services are no longer available.

Factors that contribute to brain drain include:

  • Lack of higher education opportunities: This is a major driver of brain drain. In India, entry to higher education is becoming increasingly tough due to rising cut-offs and a plethora of competitive tests. In terms of abilities and knowledge, they have an advantage over students from other nations when they study abroad.
  • Lack of financial research support: For years, India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has remained at 0.7 percent of GDP. Among the BRICS countries, India has one of the lowest GERD/GDP ratios. As a result, R&D experts tend to migrate to other countries to continue their work.
  • Low-income: Developed countries pay better in fields such as health, research, and information technology. One of the biggest causes of emigration from India is a lack of income.
  • Lack of acknowledgment for talents: In a population this huge, and with customs favouring the glamour world over academic talent, becoming recognised in one’s area is tough. Bright brains prefer to work in places where their work is valued more.
  • Lack of Intellectual property right protection

Factors that cause brain drain:

  • Higher living standards: Developed countries offer higher living standards, salaries, tax benefits, and other benefits, which attract emigrants.
  • Better quality of life: It is unarguable that the facilities offered abroad have yet to be matched by developing countries, and hence migration will continue until that level of living quality is realised.
  • Social pressure: Indian youth are becoming more liberal and personal in their lives, and society has yet to adjust to this new way of life. As a result, the pressure to live a specific way in Indian culture is limiting today’s teenagers’ freedom of choice, leading them to seek asylum in western countries where society is more liberal and non-interfering.
  • Easier migration policies: Developed countries are making it easier to migrate in order to recruit talent and grow their economies. They specifically target Asians for intellectual labour.
  • Higher remuneration: One of the most compelling reasons for migrating is the better salary and living standards offered by developing countries.

Measures have been taken by the Government to tackle the brain drain:

  • Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) Programme: The initiative intends to recruit talented young people to science studies at a young age, as well as to develop the key human resource pool needed to enhance and extend the Science and Technology system and R&D foundation.
  • The Ramanujan Fellowship: It is intended for bright Indian scientists from outside India to work in India on scientific research projects.
  • The Ramalingaswamy Fellowship: It provides a forum for scientists who want to return to India and work there.
  • Vaishvik Bharatiya Vaigyanik (VAIBHAV) summit: Several foreign Indian-origin academicians and Indians took part in this to generate ideas for innovative solutions to a variety of problems.
  • Triad of Scheme for Transformational and Advanced Research in Sciences (STARS), Scheme for Promotion of Academic and Research Collaboration (SPARC) and Impactful Policy Research in Social Science (IMPRESS): The common goal is to promote India-specific research in the social and natural sciences.

What can be done to stop brain drain in India?

  • Adequate investment in cutting-edge technology and research: The government should develop a policy with the goal of raising overall GERD (Gross domestic expenditure on R&D) to 2% of GDP. To attract smart people back to India, the government must build more cutting-edge research institutions.
    • About 20 NRI doctors from the United States and Europe, for example, relocated to Kolkata to establish the West Bank Hospital, which boasts high-tech equipment and amenities.
  • Emphasis on education and employment: India has far too few high-quality educational and professional institutions. Without the widespread availability of both strong public education and regular, skilled employment, no country has progressed up the economic ladder. As a result, the focus must be on establishing institutions of excellence in education and skill development.
  • Global innovation alliances should be strengthened by improving public-private partnership mechanisms and allocating more public monies to cooperative industry R&D projects.
  • Idea-to-market challenge: Instead of moving abroad for work, the government should establish a dedicated fund to assist Indian innovators in advancing their start-ups and becoming successful.

Way forward:

  • In industrialised countries, cutting-edge research and ecosystems are attractive and provide possibilities for individuals to satisfy their need for knowledge. This, along with a scarcity of skilled personnel, acts as a pull factor.
  • A push element is the relative paucity of comparable opportunities and the relative excess of skilled labour.
  • Encourage private players to participate in research by providing them with more cash, as well as assurances that IPR will be obtained in a shorter period of time.
  • Encourage state and municipal governments to fund research for local concerns so that emotional support can be provided to conduct research for their own citizens.
  • Our universities and laboratories must interact in order to establish an environment that allows scientists to work with the best machinery as well as the best minds from the universities.

Mains oriented question:

“India’s brain drain is West’s brain gain.” Critically discuss why India’s scientists move to foreign countries and excel. Do you think brain drain is a thing of past, especially in the field of science? Examine. (200 words)