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SAMARTH National Mission on Use of Biomass in Thermal Plant

SAMARTH National Mission on Use of Biomass in Thermal Plant

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  • GS 3 || Science & Technology || Energy || Bio Energy

Why in the news?

In order to reduce stubble burning and to reduce carbon footprint of Thermal Power Plants while increasing the income of farmers, Government of India has taken various proactive step with the establishment of National Mission on Use of Biomass in Thermal Power Plants.

All about biofuel:

First generation biofuels: Second generation biofuels: Third generation biofuels: Fourth Generation Biofuels:
●       Using traditional technique, they are manufactured from food sources such as sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats.

●       Bioalcohols, Biodiesel, Vegetable oil, Bioethers, and Biogas are examples of first-generation biofuels.

●       Though the conversion process is simple, using food supplies to produce biofuels causes an imbalance in the food economy, resulting in higher food prices and famine.

●       Using traditional technique, they are manufactured from food sources such as sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats.

●       Bioalcohols, Biodiesel, Vegetable oil, Bioethers, and Biogas are examples of first-generation biofuels.

●       Though the conversion process is simple, using food supplies to produce biofuels causes an imbalance in the food economy, resulting in higher food prices and famine.

●       These are made by microorganisms such as algae.

●       Butanol is a good example.

●       Algae can be cultivated on land and water that would otherwise be unsuitable for food production, lessening the load on already depleting water supplies.

●       One negative is that the fertilisers used in their manufacturing pollute the environment.

●       Crops that have been genetically altered to take in large amounts of carbon are cultivated and harvested as biomass in the creation of these fuels.

●       Second-generation procedures are then crops into fuel.

●       The carbon is caught used to transform the once the fuel is pre-combusted. The carbon is then geo-sequestered, which means it is stored in depleted oil and gas fields or unmineable coal seams.

●       Some of these fuels are carbon negative because their production removes carbon from the atmosphere.

 

Advantages of Biofuels:

Disadvantages of Biofuels:

International Initiatives on Sustainable Biofuels:

  • Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB):
    • It’s an international initiative that brings together farmers, businesses, governments, non-governmental groups, and scientists who are concerned about biofuel production and distribution’s long-term viability.
    • The “RSB Certification System” was launched in April 2011 as a set of thorough sustainability standards. Biofuels producers who achieve these standards can demonstrate to buyers and regulators that their product was produced without damaging the environment or infringing on human rights.
  • Bonsucro:
    • Bonsucro is a multi-stakeholder worldwide non-profit organisation founded in 2008 to promote sugar cane sustainability.
    • Its stated goal is to eliminate “sugarcane production’s environmental and social consequences while recognising the necessity for economic viability.”
    • This is accomplished by establishing sustainability criteria and certifying sugar cane products such as ethanol, sugar, and molasses.
  • Sustainable Biofuels Consensus:
    • It is an international initiative that urges governments, the business sector, and other stakeholders to take urgent action to secure the long-term viability of biofuel trade, production, and use.

 

1975

 

India started looking at the possibility of combining ethanol with gasoline. For the same, six technical committees and four research groups were formed.

 

1980

 

The Indian Oil Corporation tested 10 percent and 20 percent anhydrous ethanol blends in 15 passenger cars and 21 two and three wheelers.

 

2002

 

With an Rs 0.75 excise duty exemption, the government mandated the blending of 5% ethanol in nine states and four union territories. A Biofuels Development Committee was also established.

 

2003

The group proposed bolstering the current ethanol-to-petroleum blend programme and developing a national biodiesel mission based on jatropha plantations. Meanwhile, the National Auto Fuel Policy proposed that biofuel vehicles be commercialised.
 

2004

 

The Indian government was obliged to halt required ethanol blending in gasoline due to molasses feedstock availability issues.

 

2005

In 2005, a rebound in sugar and molasses output sparked renewed interest in the ethanol initiative. The government set the price of ethanol for oil companies to acquire at Rs 18.25 per litre.
 

2006

 

The government announced a Biodiesel Purchase Policy, with a purchase price of Rs 25 per litre for oil firms.

 

2007

 

The Draft National Biofuels Policy was made public. A Biofuel Mission was also initiated, with an emphasis on pongamia and jatropha plants.

 

2009

 

National Biofuel Policy, 2009 launched.

Initiative taken by the government:

  • Initiatives by Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology:
    • The department developed 2G Ethanol and successfully conveyed the technology to oil marketing companies (OMCs).
    • For the manufacture of biofuels, an indigenous cellulolytic enzyme was developed.
    • Micro algae-based sewage treatment method was demonstrated.
    • Through multilateral projects like Mission Innovation and Biofuture Platform, it has strengthened worldwide collaboration to accelerate innovation in Sustainable Biofuel.
    • Through Fellowships/Awards, it is educating and encouraging young researchers in the field of Bioenergy.
  • Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana 2019 : The scheme’s goal is to create an environment conducive to the establishment of commercial projects and to promote R&D in the 2G Ethanol industry.
  • Ethanol blending:
    • By 2030, the 2018 Biofuel Policy aims to achieve a 20 percent ethanol blend and a 5% biodiesel blend.
    • The government has decreased the GST on ethanol for gasoline blending from 18 percent to 5%.
    • The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas is working hard to boost ethanol supply for gasoline.
  • DHAN scheme for GOBAR (Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources) 2018: It focuses on managing and converting farm waste and animal dung into useful compost, biogas, and bio-CNG, keeping villages clean and enhancing rural household income. It was established as part of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin).
  • The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has launched Repurpose Spent Cooking Oil (RUCO), which intends to create an ecosystem that allows for the collection and conversion of used cooking oil to biodiesel.
  • National Policy on Biofuels, 2018:
    • To enable the extension of appropriate financial and fiscal incentives under each category, the Policy categorises biofuels as “Basic Biofuels” – First Generation (1G) bioethanol and biodiesel – and “Advanced Biofuels” – Second Generation (2G) ethanol, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to drop-in fuels, Third Generation (3G) biofuels, bio-CNG, and so on.
    • It broadens the range of raw materials available for ethanol production by allowing the use of sugarcane juice, sugar-containing materials such as sugar beet, sweet sorghum, starch-containing materials such as corn, cassava, and damaged food grains such as wheat, broken rice, and rotten potatoes, which are unfit for human consumption.

SAMARTH National Mission on Use of Biomass:

  • About: The projected National Biomass Mission will also help with the National Clean Air Program (NCAP). It would contribute to the country’s energy transition and our goals of moving to cleaner energy sources.
  • Aim: The goal is to lower the carbon footprint of thermal power generation while also addressing the issue of air pollution caused by farm stubble burning.
  • Objective: Increase biomass co-firing from the current 5% to greater levels in order to increase the share of carbon-neutral power generation from thermal power plants.
    • The term “biomass co-firing” refers to the use of biomass as a partial fuel substitution in high-efficiency coal boilers.
    • Take up R&D (Research and Development) in boiler design to cope with the greater levels of silica and alkalis in biomass pellets.

Way forward:

  • In countries like India, encouraging the use of biofuels in transportation will assist to reduce the cost of crude imports.
  • Biofuels, in the form of new cash crops, can aid rural and agricultural growth.
  • Efforts to produce sustainable biofuels should include ensuring that wastelands and municipal trash created in cities are utilised.
  • Both food and energy can be provided by a properly designed and implemented biofuel solution.
  • It is possible to try a community-based biodiesel distribution programme that helps local economies, from the farmers who cultivate the feedstock to the local businesses who produce and distribute the fuel to the end user.