- When does a Bill Lapse in Parliament?
- J&K SRO 202 protest 2019
- Citizenship Bill protests in Mizoram
- Post retirement Appointment of Judges in India
- 100% use of VVPAT for General Election 2019
- CAG Report on Rafale
- Delhi Govt vs Lieutenant Governor case
- What is Judicial Recusal?
- Sanskrit Prayers in Schools Challenged in Apex Court
- Ladakh is a separate division now in Jammu & Kashmir
Governance & Social Justice
- 13 Point Roster System
- Calling wife a PROSTITUTE a grave provocation
- Information Technology Act amendment fumes eCigarette smokers
- SC order to evict more than 1 million forest Dwellers
- Skill Ministry’s guidelines for Jan Shikshan Sansthans
- National Commission for Safai Karmacharis gets 3 year tenure extension
- Policy for Domestic Workers in India
- Nilavembu Kudineer concoction for treatment of Dengue & Chikungunya diseases
- Reconstitution of Indian Council of Historical Research
- Swine Flu outbreak in various parts of India, How H1N1 virus spreads?
- Global Corruption Index 2018 by Transparency International
- PM Shram Yogi Maandhan
- Participation of Indian Women in Mining Sector
- CBI vs CBI Alok Verma Case, Has delay by Supreme Court defeated justice?
- Importance of research in UG curriculum
- CBI v/s Mamata
- India Warned by International Olympic Committee IOC
- Fungal Toxin Zearalenone in Cereals
- Magnitude of Substance Use in India by NDDTC, 16 crore Indians drink alcohol
- eAushadhi portal launched by AYUSH ministry
- Spike in female foeticide: study blames India’s inheritance law
- World’s 1st Human Rights TV channel launched
- Musical Devices usage Standards by WHO & ITU
- Issues India will face in 2019
- What is most favoured Nation Status ?
- India’s Foreign Policy Challenges
- Will Belarus Merger with Russia?
- Bill to counter exploitation by NRI spouses
- Trump Declares Emergency In USA
- India Hikes Tariffs on Pakistani Imports to 200%
- India to stop excess river water supply to Pak
- PM Modi’s Arunachal Pradesh Visit
- Why Venezuela Wants India to buy its Oil?
- India withdraws Most Favoured Nation status for Pakistan
- Mohammed Bin Salman in India 2019
- U.S China Fight for Greenland
- IAF Pilot Abhinandan in Pakistan Custody
- Why China Shields Masood azhar in United Nations?
- India to be Guest of Honor at OIC
- Why is Iran angry at Pakistan?
- Afghanistan Launches New Export Route to India
- National Cow Commission
- Why Promotion of City Compost policy needs overhauling?
- National Gas Grid project of India
- Ministry of Civil Aviation releases Vision 2040 document
- Advantages of Income Transfer Policy for Agri Sector
- Effects of Falling Inflation on Indian Economy
- Jet Airways Bailout Plan
- Crisis in World Trade Organisation
- Budget 2019 Analysis
- Infrastructure Allocations in Interim Budget
- Ladakh now connected to National Grid
- Reforming Loan Waivers Kerala Model
- India’s longest LPG pipeline
- Periodic Labour Force Survey
- Revised GDP estimates
- Can Two Child Policy Work in India?
- What is Angel Tax and Angel Investor?
- Transport infrastructure : India’s achievements in last 5 years
- Global Recession Warning by Nobel laureate Paul Krugman
- World Bank approved 11000 crore for improving safety of dams in India
- RBI concerned about NPCI monopoly
- Removal of Banks from PCA Framework
- Inter-State Agriculture trading via eNAM
- Revenue Shortfall under GST
- Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi
- Subarnarekha Port of Odisha Rs. 5000 Crore
- Sugarcane Farmers Protest in Maharashtra
Science & Technology
- Periodic Table completes 150 years
- GSAT 31 Successfully Launched French Guiana
- Solid Fuel Ducted Ramjet Missile Tested by DRDO
- Indian Navy’s new Air Base
- Use of Space Technology in Agriculture Sector
- Unnati Program by ISRO
- World’s First Privately Funded Mission to Moon
- Status of Coal Sector in India
- Rise in Human – Lepoard Conflict
- Why India can’t handle more Tigers?
- First Captive Elephant Surgery
- Rise of Nitrogen Pollution in India
- Rise of Light Pollution
- Asiatic Lion Conservation Project
- Crocodiles Near Statue Of Unity
- Saksham 2019 : Fuel Conservation Campaign
- Plastic Consumption
- NITI Aayog Releases SDG India Index
- National Mission for Green India
Spice of the Month
- GS 2 || Government and social justice || Human Development || Health
Why in news?
- According to data compiled by the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, there have been 4,571 cases of swine flu and 169 deaths from the disease across the country this year until January 27.
- India is witnessing a new rise in the number of cases and deaths due to swine flu.
- Gujarat is the worst-affected, followed by Rajasthan, Punjab, Maharashtra and Delhi.
- The number of cases in the southern states is also high compared with last year, especially in Tamil Nadu.
- Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs.
- It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc.
Influenza A (H1N1)
- Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that is the most common cause of human influenza.
- It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic synergy. Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell.
- Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells.
- Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza).
- Since swine flu can be directly be transmitted from one person to another through air droplets, people who fail to follow proper hygiene, especially in crowded places are at a high risk of contracting the virus. But, according to observations, there are specific groups of individuals that have been the most affected by the illness.
- Individuals having any other respiratory condition like pneumonia
- Pregnant women
- People suffering from chronic diseases like heart disease and diabetes
- People more than 65 years of age and children younger than 2 years
- According to the National Institute of Communicable Disease (NICD), swine flu can be completely treated if it is diagnosed at a very early stage.
- The anti‐viral medicines oseltamivir (Tamiflu/Fluvir) and zanamivir (Relenza) are given to diagnosed patients.
- Wear a proper surgical mask during flu season because the number of cases shoots up during the summers and monsoon seasons.
- Always cover your face while coughing or sneezing. Ensure others around you also follow the same practice, especially if they’re down with cold.
- Always wash your hands before and after eating and particularly after returning from a public place.
- A range of administrative policies and practices can be used to minimize influenza exposures before arrival, upon arrival, and throughout the duration of the visit to the healthcare setting.
- Measures include screening and triage of symptomatic patients and implementation of respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette.
- Information could be collected from different surveys and surveillances to:
- Find out when and where influenza activity is occurring
- Track influenza-related illness
- Determine what influenza viruses are circulating
- Detect changes in influenza viruses
- Measure the impact influenza is having on hospitalizations and deaths in the United States
- Our Government may follow the S. influenza surveillance system which is a collaborative effort between CDC (Centre for Disease Control) and its many partners in state, local, and territorial health departments, public health and clinical laboratories, vital statistics offices, healthcare providers, clinics, and emergency departments.
- Facilitate prompt awareness and characterization of influenza-A viruses with pandemic potential and accelerate the implementation of effective public health responses
- Define Swine flu, its symptoms and preventive measures against the H1N1 virus.