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Science & Technology
Other Aspects of Governance
Good Governance Week 2021 – Centre aims to resolve public grievances at village level across India
- GS 2 || Governance & Social Justice || Other Aspects of Governance || Good Governance
Why in the news?
From the 20th to the 26th of December, the Union Government will hold a statewide ‘Good Governance Week,’ with the goal of redressing and resolving public grievances and improving service delivery down to the village level.
- It is observed to honour India’s progress in strengthening citizen-centric government and increasing service delivery as part of the Azadi ka Amrut Mahotsav celebrations marking the country’s 75th year of progress.
- Throughout the week, a number of programmes will be held to promote the Centre’s numerous good governance activities.
- It will also feature the opening of the Good Governance Practices Exhibition.
- Ease of Living and Next-Generation Reforms to Reduce Compliance Burdens
- DARPG’s Best Practices Experience Sharing Workshop
- The Karmayogi Mission – The Road Ahead
- During the event, the Good Governance Week Platform will be launched, giving all district collectors in states and union territories access to the web portal to post and share progress and successes.
- A campaign called “Prashasan Gaon Ki Aur” will be started with the goal of bringing excellent governance to rural communities.
- The exercise of power or authority by political leaders for the benefit of their country’s population or subjects is often defined as governance.
- It is a complicated process in which some members of society wield power and adopt and promulgate public policies that have direct implications for human and institutional interactions, as well as economic and social growth.
- The correct and effective exploitation of resources is a big part of government.
- The public sector (state actors and institutions), the private sector (households and businesses), and civil society make up today’s governance (non-governmental organizations).
- In the governance process, these three sectors are said to work in tandem.
What is Good Governance?
- ‘Governance’ refers to both the process of making decisions and the process of putting those decisions into action (or not implemented).
- Corporate governance, international governance, national governance, and municipal governance are all examples of governance.
- The World Bank defined good governance in its study “Governance and Development” published in 1992. “The manner in which authority is exercised in the administration of a country’s economic and social resources for growth,” it defined Good Governance as.
- There are eight major qualities of good governance.
- It is democratic, consensus-driven, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective, and efficient, as well as fair and inclusive, and it adheres to the rule of law.
- It ensures that corruption is minimised, minorities’ perspectives are considered, and the voices of society’s most vulnerable are heard in decision-making.
- It is also relevant to society’s current and future requirements.
Eight Principles of Good Governance:
- Participation: People should have a say in how decisions are made, either directly or through legitimate intermediaries who represent their interests.
- Rule of law: Legal frameworks, notably human rights laws, should be fair and impartially enforced.
- Transparency: The free flow of information is the foundation of transparency. Processes, institutions, and information are all directly accessible to individuals who are interested in them, and sufficient information is provided to comprehend and monitor them.
- Responsiveness: Institutions and processes strive to provide timely service to all stakeholders.
- Consensus orientation: Good governance necessitates the mediation of many societal interests in order to create wide consensus on what is in the best interests of the entire community and how this might be accomplished.
- Equity: All people, especially the most vulnerable, have the ability to improve or preserve their health.
- Effectiveness and efficiency: Processes and institutions provide outcomes that meet demands while maximising resource utilisation.
- Accountability: Government, commercial sector, and civil society decision-makers are held accountable to the public as well as institutional stakeholders.
Initiatives for Good Governance in India
- Right to Information: As a signatory to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), India has an international commitment to adequately protect citizens’ right to information under Article 19 of the Covenant.
- The RTI Act of 2005 marked a watershed moment in Indian democracy. It improves the government’s responsiveness to community demands by providing citizens with better access to information.
- By making the government more open to public examination, the right to information promotes openness, transparency, and accountability in administration.
- Such steps will bring more transparency and open structure and easy understanding environment for village people.
- E-Governance: The National e-Government Plan aims to make all government services available to the general public in his neighbourhood through common service delivery outlets, while also ensuring efficiency, transparency, and reliability of such services at reasonable prices.
- In the era of rapidly emerging information and communication technologies (ICTs), which herald new prospects for rapid social and economic transformation around the world, e-government efficiently offers better programming and services.
- E-Government has a direct impact on citizens, who gain from direct interactions with government services.
- Village people get extra benefits of such idea as they can reach to the government directly without any middleman and delay.
- Programs launched under e-Governance: PRAGATI (Proactive Governance and Timely Implementation), Digital India Program, MCA21 (to increase the speed and certainty with which Ministry of Company Affairs services are delivered), Passport Seva Kendra (PSK), online Income Tax Return, and so on.
- Maintain a focus on “Minimum Government, Maximum Governance:
- Legal Reforms: With the goal of increasing openness and efficiency, the Central Government has repealed approximately 1,500 outdated regulations and laws. Reform the criminal justice system and procedural laws, with a focus on pre-indictment mediation.
- Ease of Doing Business: The government has taken steps to enhance business conditions, including legislation aimed at improving the business environment and policy ecosystems in the country (such as the Bankruptcy Code, the Goods and Services Tax or GST, and the anti-money-laundering law). Take, for example, the ‘Make in India’ initiative.
- Decentralization: The Centralised Planning Commission was abolished, and the National Institution for Transforming India (NITI Aayog), a think tank, was established to usher in a period of “cooperative federalism.” For the years 2015 to 2020, the 14th Finance Commission increased the divisible pool tax devolution to states from 32% to 42%. It gives governments more leeway to create plans based on local variables.
- Police Reforms: Modernizing police forces and putting the 2015 Model Police Act into effect. Reform of the First Information Report (FIR) filing system, including the introduction of electronic FIR filing for minor offences. Launch a national emergency number to respond to residents’ security demands in an emergency.
- Aspirational Districts Programme:
- The Aspirational Districts Programme (ADP) was launched in January 2018 with the goal of transforming the lives of people in the county’s underdeveloped areas in a time-bound manner.
- Anchored in NITI Aayog, the programme aims to transform 115 of the country’s most backward districts through targeted interventions in health and nutrition, education, agriculture and water management, financial inclusion, and skill development.
- Good Governance Index:
- On December 25, 2019, the Good Governance Index was introduced in honour of Good Governance Day.
- The Good Governance Index is a standardised measure used by state governments and union territories to assess the state of governance and the impact of various actions.
- The Good Governance Index’s goals are to provide quantifiable data to compare the state of governance in all states and Union Territories, to help states and Union Territories formulate and implement appropriate strategies for improving governance, and to help states and Union Territories shift to result-oriented approaches and administration.
Challenges to Good Governance:
- Criminalization of Politics: According to the Association of Democratic Reforms, 43 percent of Lok Sabha members are facing criminal accusations in 2019. In comparison to 2014, this represents a 26% rise.
- The criminalization of politics, as well as the unholy alliance between politicians, civil officials, and commercial interests, is having a negative impact on public policy development and governance, and the political class as a whole is losing respect.
- As a result, it is required to revise Section 8 of the Representation of the People’s Act 1951 to disqualify anyone who is facing criminal charges for serious and egregious crimes or corruption.
- Corruption: Corruption is a key impediment to increasing governance quality. While individual greed is clearly a driver of corruption, structural incentives and a lack of enforcement to punish the corrupt have contributed to India’s increasing graft curve. According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index – 2020, India’s ranking has declined from 78 to 80.
- Gender Disparity:
- “It is difficult to think about the wellbeing of the world unless the position of women is better,” Swami Vivekananda said. It’s hard for a bird to fly with just one wing.”
- Examining the position of the country’s women is one way to assess the state of the country. Because women account for over half of the population, it is unjust that they be underrepresented in government institutions and other related industries.
- As a result, it is critical to ensure women’s empowerment in order to ensure good governance.
- Increasing levels of violence: Using illegal force is considered a law and order issue. When viewed through the lens of Good Governance principles, however, it becomes evident that peace and order are the first step toward growth.
- Delay in Justice: Every citizen has the right to timely justice, but due to a variety of causes, the average person does not receive it.
- Administrative System Centralization: Governments at lower levels can only function effectively if they are given the authority to do so. This is especially important for Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), which are now suffering from a lack of funding and functionaries to carry out the legally mandated responsibilities.
- Marginalization of Socially and Economically Backward People: In the process of development, the socially and economically backward sectors of society have always been marginalised. Despite the fact that there are constitutional provisions for their upliftment, they are trailing behind in many areas such as education, economic well-being, and so on.
Every person in the country is concerned about the country’s successful government. Citizens are willing to pay a price for decent government services, but what is needed is a transparent, responsible, and understandable governing structure that is devoid of bias and prejudice. To reestablish effective governance in the country, we need to reformulate our national plan to give prominence to the Gandhian principle of “Antyodaya.” India should also work to improve governance probity, which will make the country’s government more ethical. The government should keep working on the Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas, and Sabka Vishwas values, which will lead to inclusive and sustainable growth.