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Should Artificial Intelligence be regulated in India?

Should Artificial Intelligence be regulated in India?

Relevance:

  • GS 3 || Science & Technology || Fourth Industrial Revolution || Artificial Intelligence

Why in news?

Artificial Intelligence (AI), the engine of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is now very much with us and thus we need to be prepared both technically and legally to face the dangers and difficulties which will be brought by AI.

Background:

  • Google’s CEO, Sundar Pichai, backed artificial intelligence legislation.
  • Artificial intelligence is growing at a rapid pace, infiltrating every industry and creating significant challenges for both corporations and regulators.

Artificial Intelligence:

  • It is related to the same task of utilizing computers to research human intellect, but AI does not have to be limited to physiologically observable methods.
  • It’s the science and engineering of creating intelligent machines, particularly intelligent computer programs.
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) would not replace people, but it would open up new opportunities in a number of fields.
  • It is data-driven, and if we could train our robots to automate tasks in milliseconds, it would be a game-changer.
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is bringing up new possibilities that would be difficult to achieve with previous technology.

Application of Artificial Intelligence:

  • Digital personal assistants: Artificial intelligence (AI) is used in smartphones to deliver services that are as relevant and customized as feasible.
  • Cyber security: AI systems can assist in identifying and combating cyber-attacks and other cyber dangers by continuously ingesting data, recognizing trends, and tracing the assaults back to their source.
  • Online shopping and advertising: AI plays a significant role in commerce, such as product optimization, inventory planning, and logistics.
  • Machine translations: Language translation software uses artificial intelligence to provide and enhance translations, whether based on written or spoken text.
  • Web search: To offer appropriate search results, search engines learn from the huge amount of data given by its users.
  • Smart homes, cities, and infrastructure: Smart city developers seek to increase connectivity and minimize traffic congestion by regulating traffic.
  • Automobiles: While self-driving automobiles are not yet commonplace, many cars already include AI-powered safety features. For example, the EU has contributed to the funding of VI-DAS, which are automated sensors that identify potentially harmful circumstances and accidents. The majority of navigation is aided by artificial intelligence.
  • Countering misinformation: By mining social media data, looking for sensational or scary phrases, and determining which online sources are regarded credible, certain AI systems may detect fake news and disinformation.
  • Health: Researchers are looking at how AI might be used to analyze vast amounts of health data and uncover trends that could lead to new medical discoveries and ways to enhance individual diagnoses.
  • Covid-19 with artificial intelligence: In the instance of Covid-19, AI has been employed at thermal imaging in airports and other places.
  • Agriculture: AI applications in agriculture have developed applications and tools that assist farmers in performing accurate and controlled farming by providing them with proper guidance on water management, crop rotation, timely harvesting, and type of crop to be grown, as well as optimum planting, pest control, and other topics.
  • Transportation: By reducing wheel friction, increasing speed, and allowing autonomous driving, AI might increase the safety, speed, and efficiency of rail transportation. Tesla Automobiles makes use of artificial intelligence.

Benefits of Artificial Intelligence:

  • Artificial intelligence (AI) might be a useful tool for governments in terms of governance, development, and effective decision-making.
  • Self-driving AI is extensively used in cars, digital assistants (such as Amazon’s Alexa), and facial recognition systems.
  • Healthcare, agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation all use artificial intelligence.
  • In the realm of education, artificial intelligence (AI) can evaluate students and adapt to their needs, allowing them to learn at their own pace.
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) development and applications are progressing at a rapid pace, with far-reaching implications for economies and societies.
  • Benefits of AIto India:
  • According to the NITI Aayog, adopting AI will improve the economy’s gross value added (GVA) by 15% by 2035.
  • It has the potential to help farmers earn more money, boost agricultural production, and minimize waste in agriculture.
  • It can assist in the development of efficient infrastructure for the growing urban population, as well as the development of smarter and safer means of transportation to alleviate traffic and congestion problems.
  • AI has the potential to create more employment in the country than the number of occupations that are being made obsolete as a result of technological advancements.
  • Boost efficiency and improve governance across the board.
  • It assists in increasing the ease of doing business as well as making people’s life easier.
  • AI can assist India in becoming a major manufacturing centre, and the ‘Make in India’ initiative may be reinforced.

What are the Key challenges to adoption of AI in India?

  • There is a scarcity of broad-based competence in AI research and implementation.
  • Inability to access intelligent data.
  • Expensive resources.
  • There is a lack of knowledge about the technology’s adoption.
  • Concerns about privacy and security.
  • Skilled personnel shortage.
  • Unlike their worldwide counterparts, Indian technical universities are not doing enough to build the AI ecosystem.

Need to Regulate AI:

  • Artificial intelligence (AI) may be a double-edged sword in that it can be abused or act in unexpected and perhaps dangerous ways.
  • Safety, transparency, and accountability: New regulations are needed to ensure that AI systems are held accountable for their actions.
  • Privacy concerns: The data acquired by AI systems will have an impact on the privacy of the individuals affected.
  • Facial recognition: artificial neural networks may be used to create ‘deepfakes,’ in which a person in an existing image or video is replaced with someone else’s likeness.
  • Ethical governance: AI systems must be controlled by ethical norms from the beginning of their creation. This will help to minimize bias in AI code, which might lead to biased AI.

Steps required to Regulate AI:

  • Designer regulation: We also need to consider who creates AI algorithms and what methods they use to develop them. If their personal prejudice is passed on to the AI throughout its creation, the specialists who code it represent a genuine threat.
  • Machine optimization rules: It must be adequately regulated and monitored to ensure that they are not misused. AI may be used to sway even a presidential election if it isn’t properly optimized.
  • Data regulation: It is a prerequisite for establishing AI regulation. To effectively lead AI development, we should regulate and incentivize data exchange and application on the premise of safeguarding individual data rights.

Other countries and Indian Government’sinitiatives to regulate AI:

  • US stand:While the US AI policy emphasizes self-regulation and rapid technical advancement, China, the United Kingdom, and the European Union have chosen a government-led approach to establishing AI principles.
  • China:China has been in the forefront of establishing a national AI development drive. In order to create its own governance standards, it is seeking contributions from AI specialists.
  • United Kingdom: The UK has pioneered an ethical approach by establishing the Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation and the Office for Artificial Intelligence.
  • Singapore: The government of Singapore has suggested an AI governance framework based on a “human-centric” approach.
  • India sees AI as a tool for achieving a specific goal: addressing the country’s severe social issues. In pursuit of social good, NITI Aayog created a national strategy for artificial intelligence that emphasized an “AI for all” approach.
  • OECD nations:In 2019, OECD nations such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan, as well as non-members such as Brazil, Argentina, and Romania, signed the first international agreement on AI development. These non-binding OECD principles were the first to be endorsed by a substantial number of nations.
  • Human rights and democratic ideals: These principles emphasize the development of AI that is respectful of human rights and democratic ideals, guaranteeing that people who are impacted by AI systems are protected.
  • In the domains of governance and development, Artificial Intelligence is advancing at a quicker rate. It’s safe to assume that it’ll play an even bigger role in the future. While there is no need to be alarmed about this impending event, we must proceed with care.
  • To create a sustainable AI-inclusive future, regulating AI and implementing the right measures to achieve this aim should be at the forefront of a government’s policy agenda.

Conclusion:

Despite these risks and obstacles, it would be foolish to claim that Artificial Intelligence (AI) is not the way of the future, and that robots would eventually replace the majority of employment. It does not signal the end of humanity’s journey, and we have a history of technical revolutions resulting in social and political shifts.

Mains oriented question:

Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based firm that is still in the early stages of development but has the potential to challenge global companies and therefore establish an AI ecosystem in India. What are the challenge associated with AI why it needs to be regulated? (200 words)