Art & Culture
- First Constitutional Amendment Act 1951
- Centre approves 27% reservation for OBCs in medical seats – Is it the death of merit system?
- Why Goa does not celebrate Independence Day on 15th August? History of Goa’s independence
- CJI NV Ramana expresses anguish about Non Functioning of Parliament
- Assam Mizoram Border Clash – Learn how a geographical issue turned into an ethnic conflict?
Governance & Social Justice
- Centre approves 27% reservation for OBCs in medical seats – Is it the death of merit system?
- YoYo Honey Singh’s wife Shalini files domestic violence case in Delhi HC – Domestic Violence Laws
- Socio-Economic Caste Census to be conducted after Census 2021
- Profit Making Private Schools vs Public Schools, Is it ethical for schools to operate like a business?
- Manual Scavenging in India is not prevalent anymore says Centre
- PM Modi launches Ujjwala Yojana 2.0 – How it will benefit poor households?
- How Jharkhand can become one of the most developed states of India?
- Gender Self Identification concept explained – Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act 2019
- Will World War 3 start from the South China Sea? Facts about China’s 9 Dash Line and Malacca Strait
- Taliban stop Exports Imports between India Afghanistan
- Why India’s Foreign Policy needs to stop obsessing over Pakistan?
- Arab Spring after 10 Years – Successes and Failures of the uprising explained
- Is China becoming Africa’s new colonial power? China’s debt trap diplomacy in Africa
- India Fiji Relations – Significance of Fiji as India’s gateway to Pacific Ocean Region and Nations
- How Shale Gas can make India energy independent? The difference in Shale oil & Crude Oil
- How Methane Hydrate can make India energy self-sufficient?
- Natural Gas Pipeline Projects in India explained – How India is moving towards gas based economy?
- Why is IMD’s monsoon forecast often inaccurate? Indian Ocean Dipole and Madden Julian Oscillation
- Global Semiconductor Chip Supply Chain and US China Tech War – Can India become electronic chip hub?
- Centre to amend Income Tax Act to abolish Retrospective Tax demands
- National Edible Oil Mission Oil Palm Scheme
- What is Animal Spirits in Economics? PM Modi unveils AMRIT KAAL a 25-year roadmap of new India.
- Electricity Amendment Bill 2021 – Why it is opposed by some States ?
- National Institutes of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management Bill 2021
- How Automobile Industry became significant part of Indian Economy?
- Gati Shakti Master Plan announced by PM Modi to give Rs 100 lakh crore infrastructure boost
- India to replace existing electricity meters with Smart Prepaid Meters by 2025
- National Asset Monetisation Pipeline to raise Rs 6 lakh crore says Finance Minister
- Bharatmala Pariyojana of NHAI – Known facts about second biggest road project of India
- Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project to connect India’s Political Capital with Business Capital
Defence & Security
Science & Technology
- Apple New Software Update to scan Child Sexual Abuse Material on devices
- ISRO SATNAV Policy 2021 explained – Aims to make India self-reliant in Space Technology
- India’s Nuclear Power capacity to reach 22,480 MW by 2031 Energy
- Should Artificial Intelligence be regulated in India?
- Defence Corridors in Uttar Pradesh & Tamil Nadu to make India self-reliant in the defence sector
- Non Communicable Diseases surge in India’s working population finds TARI
- Centre aims to turn Lakshadweep into a world-class tourist destination – Why locals are concerned?
- Impact of Climate Change on Extreme Weather Events around the world
- IPCC Sixth Assessment Report – What is the current status of Global Climate Change?
- Great Indian Bustards vanished from Kutch Bustard Sanctuary in Gujarat
- How Light Pollution disrupts Dung Beetles’ sense of direction?
- Electronic Waste in India, Why rich nations are dumping toxic e-waste in India?
- GS 3 || Science & Technology || Energy || Nuclear Energy
Why in the news?
India’s nuclear power capacity is expected to reach 22,480 MegaWatts by 2031 from the current 6,780 MegaWatts.
- India’s nuclear power capacity is expected to reach 22,480 MegaWatts by 2031 from the current 6,780 MegaWatts.
- There are presently 22 reactors with a total capacity of six thousand 780 MW in operation.
- The Government has accorded approval for ten indigenous Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors of 700 MW each to be set up.
- India intends to increase nuclear power generation capacity to 275 GWe by 2052. At the start of 2018, six reactors with a combined capacity of 4.4 GWe were under construction in India.
- The Nuclear Power Firm of India Ltd. (NPCIL), a state-owned business established in 1987, is in charge of India’s nuclear power program, which is largely domestic.
Nuclear Power of India:
India’s Nuclear Energy Program
- India has made a strategic choice to look into the possibility of generating power using nuclear energy. In the 1950s, Homi Bhabha suggested a three-stage nuclear power system in this manner.
- The Atomic Energy Act of 1962 was created with the objective of using two naturally occurring elements, Uranium and Thorium, as nuclear fuel in Indian reactors.
- Uranium resources in the country are projected to be above 70,000 tonnes, with thorium reserves estimated to be over 3,60,000 tonnes.
A nuclear power scheme with three stages:
- Stage 1: Natural uranium was used to power the pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), which produced energy and Plutonium-239 as a byproduct. For the initial step, PHWRs were chosen.
- Stage 2- FBR (fast breeder reactor): The second stage entails producing fuel from plutonium-239 for use in Fast Breeder Reactors. Plutonium 239 is fissioned to generate energy. Thorium will be utilized in the reactor to generate Uranium-233 after a significant amount of plutonium-239 has been built up. The third step requires this uranium.
- Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) Stage 3: The primary goal of stage 3 is to create a long-term nuclear fuel cycle. Uranium-233 and Thorium would be combined in the advanced nuclear system. India has a large amount of thorium that might be used in a thermal breeder reactor.
India’s Position on Various Nuclear Treaties:
- The Limited Ban Treaty: It was signed in 1963 by the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. It only enables nuclear testing to take place underground, and so forbids nuclear experimentation on the ground, beneath water, or in space. The pact has also been approved by India.
- Outer Space Treaty: Signed in 1967, it forbids countries from testing nuclear weapons in space or on celestial bodies such as the moon.
- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Pact (NPT): The treaty was signed in 1968 and went into force in 1970. It presently has 190 signatories. It demands countries to abandon any current or future intentions to manufacture nuclear weapons in exchange for access to nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Nonproliferation, disarmament, and the right to peacefully utilize nuclear technology are the three major goals of the pact. India is one of only five nations that either did not sign the NPT or signed but later withdrew, joining Pakistan, Israel, North Korea, and South Sudan on the list.
- Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is not a treaty, and it does not bind Partners in any way (members). Rather, it is an unofficial political agreement between governments to prevent the spread of missiles and missile technology.
- The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) aims to prohibit all nuclear explosions – anywhere, at any time, by anyone. It was first available for signing on September 24, 1996, and has since been signed by 182 nations, the most recent being Ghana, who ratified the treaty on June 14, 2011.
- Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) is a proposed international agreement that would ban the manufacturing of two key components of nuclear weapons: highly enriched Uranium and Plutonium.
- The Wassenaar Agreement, which was created in 1996, is a collection of countries that agree to restrict arms exports. It aims to promote security and stability by encouraging openness in the sale and transfer of armaments, materials, and technology that may be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
India’s nuclear energy potential and the need to harness nuclear energy:
- Energy poverty: Despite being the world’s third-largest generator of energy, around 20% of India’s population lacks access to electricity today. Electricity usage per capita is extremely low, at around 1,181 kWh per year, almost half of the global average and well below that of advanced countries. There are energy and peak power deficits in the range of 10-15%.
- Thorium and Uranium Deposits: India possesses huge uranium and thorium reserves that, with the right technology, could power India’s nuclear power plants. Thorium reserves in India are projected to be 360,000 tonnes, and natural uranium deposits are expected to be 70,000 tonnes. The country’s thorium reserves account for 25% of the world’s total.
- Energy efficiency: Nuclear power plants use far less nuclear fuel than thermal power plants. For example, generating 10000 MW using coal will require 30-35 million tons of coal, whereas nuclear fuel will only require 300-350 tons.
- Economic growth: Achieving developmental goals and alleviating poverty requires rapid economic growth. Over the next few decades, steady economic growth of around 8% to 10% is required. Apart from transmission and distribution systems, a huge increase in energy capacity is required since electricity is a vital engine of economic growth.
- Energy demand: Nuclear power is vital to India’s long-term energy security. Given that India’s yearly energy consumption is anticipated to reach 800 GW by 2032, it’s critical to include all energy sources while determining the best energy mix.
- Climate change: Nuclear energy may contribute to global efforts under the Paris Agreement due to its emission-free nature. India’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) outlines targets to lower its economy’s carbon emissions intensity by 33-35 percent by 2030 and boost renewable energy generation capacity to 40% of the total installed capacity in the same period.
- Decreased Energy Supply: Changing weather patterns have had a detrimental impact on energy supply. As water reservoirs shrink owing to decreased precipitation and increasing evaporation, the capacity of hydropower and other water-intensive generating methods to generate energy may dwindle.
Decommissioning options for nuclear plants:
- Some developed countries opt for Dismantling or decontamination activities of nuclear power plants that can begin within a few months, depending on the facility. Following removal from regulatory control, the site is then available for re-use within a decade.
- In the case of immediate dismantling (or early site release), responsibility for completion of decommissioning is not transferred to future generations. The experience and skills of operating staff can also be utilised during the decommissioning programme, which may be undertaken by the utility or handed over to a specialist company, with transfer of licence and accumulated funds.
- It is not opting decommission of nuclear power plant as India is not fully prepared for the process.
The following are some of the nuclear-related concerns and threats:
- Land Requirement: Building nuclear reactors necessitates a large quantity of land. Local communities, who may not want to go, would be displaced. It is also difficult to rehabilitate them and give them with adequate recompense.
- Nuclear waste: Nuclear power generation is not as environmentally friendly as it is commonly assumed. The instance of Kudankulam exemplifies this. People have been protesting for decades, fearful that the plant’s hot water could harm the marine life in the neighboring water sources, threatening their livelihood.
- Health risks: Nuclear power plants emit ionizing radiation, an unseen toxin that is harmful in any amount, no matter how little. Cancer and genetic damage are both caused by radiation. Nuclear power facilities expose both employees and the general public to radioactive risks in a variety of ways.
- Meltdowns: A meltdown is a nuclear reactor accident in which the core of the reactor melts due to excessive overheating. A nuclear power plant might leak radioactivity into the environment if it melted down. Following disasters like Chernobyl and Fukushima, countries like Germany began a nuclear phase out, closing down their nuclear power plants.
Nuclear power has the potential to aid with energy security. It may make a critical contribution to growth in a fast growing economy like India. Nuclear power can also help to alleviate the consequences of climate change by reducing the impact of variable fossil fuel costs. India must develop a long-term energy plan to fulfill its population’s current and future energy needs.
Mains oriented question:
Nuclear energy has the potential to address India’s energy issues, but it comes with significant hazards. Elaborate.