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How Jharkhand can become one of the most developed states of India?

How Jharkhand can become one of the most developed states of India?

Relevance:

  • GS 2 || Governance & Social Justice || Human Development || Concept of Development

Why in news?

After separation from Bihar, the state faced immense socio-economic difficulties, in terms of low income, high levels of poverty and food shortages.

Background:

  • Carved out from southern Bihar, Jharkhand was recognized under the Bihar Reorganization Act as a separate state on November 15, 2000.
  • Immediately after separation from Bihar, the state faced immense socio-economic difficulties, in terms of low income, high levels of poverty and food shortages.
  • Since then, Jharkhand has made rapid progress towards development. The state is home to abundant biodiversity and fertile land, with forests accounting for over 29 percent of land cover. While agriculture is the mainstay for the rural population, it houses over 40 percent of the country’s mineral reserves.
  • Major industries of Jharkhand include mining and mineral extraction contributes to over 14 percent of the state’s SDP. It is the only state in India to produce coking coal, uranium and pyrite.

Demographic Profile of Jharkhand:

  • Jharkhand is home to only around 2% of the country’s population, or 33.0 million people. The state has a sizable tribal population, accounting for almost 25% of the total population.
  • Jharkhand has a male population of 16.9 million and a female population of 16.1 million, with a sex ratio of approximately 949 (females per 1,000 men). It performs somewhat better than the national average.
  • According to the NSSO 71st Round Survey, 2014, Jharkhand’s literacy rate is 70.3 percent, which is somewhat lower than the national average of 75.4 percent. The male literacy rate is 79.6 percent, while the female literacy rate is 59.9%.
  • Jharkhand’s Work Participation Rate (WPR) is 39.70 percent, slightly lower than the national average of 39.79 percent. The proportion of major workers to total workers in Jharkhand is 52.05, whereas the proportion of marginal workers to total workers is 47.94.

Prospect of jharkhand:

  • Availability of natural resources: The state boasts the highest concentration of metals and minerals in the country, as well as the capacity to generate a considerable amount of electricity. Another plus is the presence of a vast and diverse agriculture industry.
  • Policy proactiveness: The policies of Jharkhand have the urgency of a young state seeking to carve out a place in the national landscape. As a result, policies are proactive and aimed at maximizing the use of existing resources.
  • Capability: Region has a long history of being home to mineral based heavy industry. An industrial infrastructure exists in the state that the incumbent government is building on and improving.The presence of high quality technical and management institutions is an added attraction providing a supply of skilled technical and managerial personnel

Problem persist in Jharkhand:

Jharkhand’s socio-economic structure today has changed remarkably since its formation in 2000. Though income and per capita income of Jharkhand is low.

  • Education: The reason for poor literacy may be the deficiency in education infrastructure. Jharkhand has shown very poor performance in meeting the necessary Pupil: Teacher Ratio of 30:1, and falls far behind both the national average and other states in terms of the number of teachers hired for specified cohort of students. Such statistics will adversely affect the quality of education, and efforts must be taken to remedy the situation.
  • Health: Jharkhand lags significantly behind the national average, and leading states in terms of the Maternal Mortality Ratio, showing a pressing need to improve support provided to mothers during childbirth.
  • Water and Sanitation: Due to paucity of surface sources and shallow aquifers, population of Jharkhand primarily depends on ground water sources. The provision of safe drinking water therefore is a gigantic and urgent challenge for Jharkhand’s public service delivery mechanism.
  • No focus on tribal development: Negligence has been seen in effort making in development of Jharkhand tribal population.
  • Resource availability and scam persist: Excess of resources has lead to scams at large in the state specially coal scams

Reason for underdeveloped condition of Jharkhand:

  • Negative effects of mining: Mining has a direct influence on local residents’ health and well-being. Cancer cases have been reported in the neighboring villages of Jharkhand’s Jaduguda mines as a result of radioactive waste created by uranium mining.
  • Local opposition: Rapid expansion and industrialization are opposed by locals owing to skepticism of government practices, which has led to the rise of Naxalism.
  • Policy failures: The region has a history of exploiting its mineral resources without consideration for the negative effects on the environment and local people. Because the people are impoverished and defenseless, they have little voice in high-level decisions. Even Gram Sabhas do not carry out their responsibilities.
  • Difficult terrain and limited reach: A lot of communities are located in isolated areas, making government programs like vaccination and literacy promotion difficult to execute.
  • Political instability and corruption in politics is one of the reasons for the state being underdeveloped despite its potential.

Corrective actions to improve the situation:

  • Infrastructure investment: Improving connectivity and increasing irrigated area, which is now just 16.6% in Chhattisgarh and 7% in Jharkhand, are critical.
  • Using District Mineral Foundation funds: Under the MMDRA Act 2015, 60 percent of DMF funds must be used for high-priority areas such as drinking water, health care, sanitation, education, skill development, women’s and children’s care, elderly and disabled people’s welfare, and environmental conservation. There is need to expedite work of Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana (PMKKKY)
  • Institutional approaches: According to the National Mineral Policy 2019, an inter-ministerial body should be established to create a mechanism for ensuring sustainable mining while taking into account environmental and socio-economic issues in mining areas, as well as to advise the government on royalty, dead rent, and other issues.
  • Promoting local specialization and resources: Promoting local specialty and resources: Providing Geographical Indications (GI) tags to local producers, which aid in export earnings, tourism development, cultural heritage preservation, and regional identity while also conserving traditional skills. For example, Odisha’s Kotpad Handloom cloth, Chhattisgarh’s Bastar Iron Craft, and so on. Similarly, with India’s move away from plastic and the use of minor forest products such as Tendu leaves, jute and handloom products has immense potential to boost the local economy.
  • Increasing tourist potential: The Swadesh Darshan Scheme’s Tribal Circuit seeks to create and promote tribal rituals, festivals, customs, and culture. This is also important to achieve national unity by cultivating a respect for tribal culture.

Jharkhand Vision 2022:

  • NITI Ayog’s vision for 2032: In the past, the Chief Minister of Jharkhand pledged to work in accordance with the NITI Ayog’s vision for 2032, which seeks to eliminate poverty, double farmer income by 2022, and promote sustainable development in the state. Furthermore, the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) Vision Document 2022 for the State of Jharkhand5 focuses on three major development areas to be reached in the following five years.
  • Envisions sustained growth: The Jharkhand Vision for 2022 is a five-year strategic plan that envisions sustained growth in all areas.

  • Special attention to certain zone: In terms of living standards, the state has acknowledged its shortcomings in the areas of healthcare, education, and sanitation. Health will get special attention, with a focus on women’s and children’s mortality. Preventive efforts and public awareness about severe illnesses will be prioritized.
  • To accelerate its economic growth and meet its stated goals, Jharkhand must address current socio-economic deficiencies. This can only be accomplished by teamwork and a determined focus on raising living standards, fostering sustainable development, and attaining effective governance, all of which will help the state achieve its ambition of being the best-performing state in the world.
  • The state’s objective is to offer healthcare to every village, home, and individual.

Conclusion:

To accelerate its economic growth and meet its stated goals, Jharkhand must address current socio-economic deficiencies. This can only be accomplished by teamwork and a determined focus on raising living standards, fostering sustainable development, and attaining effective governance, all of which will help the state achieve its ambition of being the best-performing state in the world. All development plans for the region’s socioeconomic progress should be guided by the slogan “Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas.” Growth that is both inclusive and long-term is the way to go.