Art & Culture
- First Constitutional Amendment Act 1951
- Centre approves 27% reservation for OBCs in medical seats – Is it the death of merit system?
- Why Goa does not celebrate Independence Day on 15th August? History of Goa’s independence
- CJI NV Ramana expresses anguish about Non Functioning of Parliament
- Assam Mizoram Border Clash – Learn how a geographical issue turned into an ethnic conflict?
Governance & Social Justice
- Centre approves 27% reservation for OBCs in medical seats – Is it the death of merit system?
- YoYo Honey Singh’s wife Shalini files domestic violence case in Delhi HC – Domestic Violence Laws
- Socio-Economic Caste Census to be conducted after Census 2021
- Profit Making Private Schools vs Public Schools, Is it ethical for schools to operate like a business?
- Manual Scavenging in India is not prevalent anymore says Centre
- PM Modi launches Ujjwala Yojana 2.0 – How it will benefit poor households?
- How Jharkhand can become one of the most developed states of India?
- Gender Self Identification concept explained – Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act 2019
- Will World War 3 start from the South China Sea? Facts about China’s 9 Dash Line and Malacca Strait
- Taliban stop Exports Imports between India Afghanistan
- Why India’s Foreign Policy needs to stop obsessing over Pakistan?
- Arab Spring after 10 Years – Successes and Failures of the uprising explained
- Is China becoming Africa’s new colonial power? China’s debt trap diplomacy in Africa
- India Fiji Relations – Significance of Fiji as India’s gateway to Pacific Ocean Region and Nations
- How Shale Gas can make India energy independent? The difference in Shale oil & Crude Oil
- How Methane Hydrate can make India energy self-sufficient?
- Natural Gas Pipeline Projects in India explained – How India is moving towards gas based economy?
- Why is IMD’s monsoon forecast often inaccurate? Indian Ocean Dipole and Madden Julian Oscillation
- Global Semiconductor Chip Supply Chain and US China Tech War – Can India become electronic chip hub?
- Centre to amend Income Tax Act to abolish Retrospective Tax demands
- National Edible Oil Mission Oil Palm Scheme
- What is Animal Spirits in Economics? PM Modi unveils AMRIT KAAL a 25-year roadmap of new India.
- Electricity Amendment Bill 2021 – Why it is opposed by some States ?
- National Institutes of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management Bill 2021
- How Automobile Industry became significant part of Indian Economy?
- Gati Shakti Master Plan announced by PM Modi to give Rs 100 lakh crore infrastructure boost
- India to replace existing electricity meters with Smart Prepaid Meters by 2025
- National Asset Monetisation Pipeline to raise Rs 6 lakh crore says Finance Minister
- Bharatmala Pariyojana of NHAI – Known facts about second biggest road project of India
- Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project to connect India’s Political Capital with Business Capital
Defence & Security
Science & Technology
- Apple New Software Update to scan Child Sexual Abuse Material on devices
- ISRO SATNAV Policy 2021 explained – Aims to make India self-reliant in Space Technology
- India’s Nuclear Power capacity to reach 22,480 MW by 2031 Energy
- Should Artificial Intelligence be regulated in India?
- Defence Corridors in Uttar Pradesh & Tamil Nadu to make India self-reliant in the defence sector
- Non Communicable Diseases surge in India’s working population finds TARI
- Centre aims to turn Lakshadweep into a world-class tourist destination – Why locals are concerned?
- Impact of Climate Change on Extreme Weather Events around the world
- IPCC Sixth Assessment Report – What is the current status of Global Climate Change?
- Great Indian Bustards vanished from Kutch Bustard Sanctuary in Gujarat
- How Light Pollution disrupts Dung Beetles’ sense of direction?
- Electronic Waste in India, Why rich nations are dumping toxic e-waste in India?
- GS 3 || Security || Internal Security Threats || Cyber Security
Why in the news?
- China has approved a sweeping privacy law that will curb data collection by technology companies, but that policy analysts say is unlikely to limit the state’s widespread use of surveillance.
- The Personal Information Protection Law lays out for the first time a comprehensive set of rules around data collection, processing, and protection that were previously governed by piecemeal legislation.
- New law was passed in the backdrop of China facing an uptick in internet scams. Companies like ride hailing, giant Didi and gaming behemoth Tencent in regulators’ have been accused of over misuse of personal data in recent months.
Aim of the new law
- The new law was passed to protect those who “feel strongly that their data is being used for user profiling and by recommendation algorithms or in setting prices”. The new law will prevent companies from setting different prices for the same service based on clients’ shopping history.
- New law has been modelled on the basis of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation. This EU law is considered as the world’s strictest online privacy protection laws.
Major Highlights of China’s New Data Privacy Laws and its impacts
- Tougher rules on data collection
- The new data protection law establishes stricter guidelines for how businesses collect and use information about their customers.
- It necessitates a reduction in data collection and the acquisition of user consent.
- For the first time, the Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL) establishes a comprehensive set of rules governing data collection, processing, and protection, which were previously governed by piecemeal legislation.
- The rules add to China’s tightening of regulation, particularly around data, and may have an impact on how China’s technology behemoths operate.
- User Protection– The law also aims to protect those who are concerned about personal data being used for user profiling and recommendation algorithms, as well as the use of big data in setting unfair prices.
- It will also prohibit companies from charging different prices for the same service based on customers’ shopping history.
- Resemblance to Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation
- The national privacy law closely resembles Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation, the world’s most robust framework for online privacy protections, and includes provisions requiring any organization or individual handling Chinese citizens’ data to limit data collection and obtain prior consent.
- However, unlike in Europe, where governments are under increased public pressure to collect more data, Beijing is expected to maintain broad access to data.
- Sharing of Data with other countries
- The law stipulates that the personal data of Chinese nationals cannot be transferred to countries with lower standards of data security than China— rules which may present problems for foreign businesses.
- Penalties for noncompliance-Companies that fail to comply may face fines of up to 50 million yuan (approximately Rs 57 crore) or 5% of their annual turnover.
- The Stock Exchange’s Reaction to the Law- The most significant impact of China notifying the law was a significant drop in the stocks of the country’s major technology companies, prompting renewed investor concern.
Similar data protection laws in the world
- European Union(EU)
- The landmark General Data Protection Regulation of the European Union went into effect in 2018 — a regulation that aims to give citizens in the bloc more control over their data.
- According to the Regulation, a user can access personal data stored by companies and learn where and why it is being used.
- Impact on organizations both inside and outside the EU-It applies not only to organisations within the EU, but also to companies outside the region that offer goods or services to, or monitor the behaviour of, people in the bloc.
- Right to be forgotten- One will also have the right to be forgotten, which means that the user can ask the company to delete one’s data, potentially stopping third parties from accessing it.
- Singapore: Newer amendments to broaden its scope
- Singapore amended its Personal Data Protection Act at the end of 2020, introducing, among other things, mandatory data breach notifications, an expansion of its deemed consent framework, consent exceptions for legitimate interests, and increased penalties for noncompliance.
- Brazil: Latin America’s first data protection law, and how will it be enforced
- Brazil’s Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados, which goes into effect in September 2020, is Latin America’s first significant data protection law.
- As Brazilian businesses and service providers scramble to comply, the remaining months of the year will be a test of how Brazil’s data protection authority will enforce the new law.
- China has always been accused of harnessing big tech to accelerate repression in northwestern Xinjiang province and elsewhere. New rules are also expected to further rattle China’s tech sector.
Current Indian data protection framework
- Data Protection Rules under the Information Technology Act: Currently, data protection in India is governed by the Information Technology (Reasonable security practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information) Rules, 2011 (“Data Protection Rules”), which are notified under the Information Technology Act, 2000 (“IT Act”).
- The Data Protection Rules further provides for the implementation of certain RSPPs by organizations dealing with sensitive personal data or information of individuals.
- Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019
- It was Introduced in Lok Sabha in Dec 2019 (not passed).
- It seeks to provide for the protection of the personal data of individuals.
- Establish a Data Protection Authority for the same.
- The central government may exempt any of its agencies from the Act’s provisions in the interests of state security, public order, Indian sovereignty and integrity, and friendly relations with foreign states, and for preventing incitement to commit any cognizable offense (i.e. arrest without a warrant) relating to the foregoing matters.
- Personal data processing is also exempt from Bill’s provisions for certain other purposes, such as Preventing, investigating, or prosecuting any crime, or for personal, domestic, or journalistic purposes Such processing, however, must be for a specific, clear, and lawful purpose, with certain security safeguards in place.
Mains model question
- For the digital well-being of people in India, strong data protection and privacy laws are critical. Examine.