Art & Culture
- First Constitutional Amendment Act 1951
- Centre approves 27% reservation for OBCs in medical seats – Is it the death of merit system?
- Why Goa does not celebrate Independence Day on 15th August? History of Goa’s independence
- CJI NV Ramana expresses anguish about Non Functioning of Parliament
- Assam Mizoram Border Clash – Learn how a geographical issue turned into an ethnic conflict?
Governance & Social Justice
- Centre approves 27% reservation for OBCs in medical seats – Is it the death of merit system?
- YoYo Honey Singh’s wife Shalini files domestic violence case in Delhi HC – Domestic Violence Laws
- Socio-Economic Caste Census to be conducted after Census 2021
- Profit Making Private Schools vs Public Schools, Is it ethical for schools to operate like a business?
- Manual Scavenging in India is not prevalent anymore says Centre
- PM Modi launches Ujjwala Yojana 2.0 – How it will benefit poor households?
- How Jharkhand can become one of the most developed states of India?
- Gender Self Identification concept explained – Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act 2019
- Will World War 3 start from the South China Sea? Facts about China’s 9 Dash Line and Malacca Strait
- Taliban stop Exports Imports between India Afghanistan
- Why India’s Foreign Policy needs to stop obsessing over Pakistan?
- Arab Spring after 10 Years – Successes and Failures of the uprising explained
- Is China becoming Africa’s new colonial power? China’s debt trap diplomacy in Africa
- India Fiji Relations – Significance of Fiji as India’s gateway to Pacific Ocean Region and Nations
- How Shale Gas can make India energy independent? The difference in Shale oil & Crude Oil
- How Methane Hydrate can make India energy self-sufficient?
- Natural Gas Pipeline Projects in India explained – How India is moving towards gas based economy?
- Why is IMD’s monsoon forecast often inaccurate? Indian Ocean Dipole and Madden Julian Oscillation
- Global Semiconductor Chip Supply Chain and US China Tech War – Can India become electronic chip hub?
- Centre to amend Income Tax Act to abolish Retrospective Tax demands
- National Edible Oil Mission Oil Palm Scheme
- What is Animal Spirits in Economics? PM Modi unveils AMRIT KAAL a 25-year roadmap of new India.
- Electricity Amendment Bill 2021 – Why it is opposed by some States ?
- National Institutes of Food Technology, Entrepreneurship and Management Bill 2021
- How Automobile Industry became significant part of Indian Economy?
- Gati Shakti Master Plan announced by PM Modi to give Rs 100 lakh crore infrastructure boost
- India to replace existing electricity meters with Smart Prepaid Meters by 2025
- National Asset Monetisation Pipeline to raise Rs 6 lakh crore says Finance Minister
- Bharatmala Pariyojana of NHAI – Known facts about second biggest road project of India
- Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project to connect India’s Political Capital with Business Capital
Defence & Security
Science & Technology
- Apple New Software Update to scan Child Sexual Abuse Material on devices
- ISRO SATNAV Policy 2021 explained – Aims to make India self-reliant in Space Technology
- India’s Nuclear Power capacity to reach 22,480 MW by 2031 Energy
- Should Artificial Intelligence be regulated in India?
- Defence Corridors in Uttar Pradesh & Tamil Nadu to make India self-reliant in the defence sector
- Non Communicable Diseases surge in India’s working population finds TARI
- Centre aims to turn Lakshadweep into a world-class tourist destination – Why locals are concerned?
- Impact of Climate Change on Extreme Weather Events around the world
- IPCC Sixth Assessment Report – What is the current status of Global Climate Change?
- Great Indian Bustards vanished from Kutch Bustard Sanctuary in Gujarat
- How Light Pollution disrupts Dung Beetles’ sense of direction?
- Electronic Waste in India, Why rich nations are dumping toxic e-waste in India?
- GS 3 || Science & Technology || Information and Communication Technology || Internet
Why in the news?
- Apple has announced that software updates later this year will bring new features that will help protect children from predators who use communication tools to recruit and exploit them and limit the spread of Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM).
What is CSAM?
- Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM) is any visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a minor (a person less than 18 years old). It reflects the sexual abuse and exploitation of children in the online world.
- More than just videos and images, CSAM can be found in virtually any online realm.
- These images and videos not only document victims’ exploitation and abuse, but when these files are shared on the internet, child victims are re-victimized each time the image of their sexual abuse is viewed.
What is sexual abuse?
- Any sexual act between an adult and a minor, or between two minors, in which one exerts power over the other.
- Forcing, coercing, or persuading a child to perform any sexual act.
- Non-contact acts such as exhibitionism, pornography, voyeurism, and sexual communication over the phone or the Internet.
Impact on Children
- Sexual abuse of any kind hurts a child’s physical and mental development.
- Obesity and eating disorders are more common in women who have been sexually abused as children.
- Sexual behaviour issues and over-sexualized behaviour are common outcomes of child sexual abuse.
- Academic difficulties in childhood are a common sign of sexual abuse.
- Long-term mental health issues are a common long-term result of child sexual abuse.
- Adult survivors of sexual abuse as a child are more likely to become involved in crime, both as a perpetrator and as a victim.
- Anger, anxiety, sadness, or low self-esteem are examples of emotional problems.
Constitutional provisions that deal with the rights of children
- Article 21: provides for the right to life and personal liberty
- Article 21 (a):State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years
- Article 24:No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.
- Article 39(f):children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and moral and material abandonment.
A report of 2020
- In a global compilation of reports of Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM)found online, India stands on top of the list, with 11.7% of the total reports followed by Pakistan, which contributes 6.8% of all reports.
- The National Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) encourages people to report CSAM found online around the world on their online platform CyberTipline on an annual basis.
- Three of the top four countries were in South Asia, raising concerns about the region’s children’s online safety.
Countering online child sexual exploitation and abuse
- The Council of Europe created an information and education campaign for adults and children in sports to draw attention to the risks to children of sexual abuse.
- Law enforcement investigations are among the most prominent means to combat online child sexual exploitation and abuse.
- National, regional, and international law enforcement agencies investigate online child sexual exploitation and abuse and cooperate in the investigation of these cybercrimes.
- For example, in Operation Tantalio, INTERPOL, Europol, and law enforcement agencies from 15 countries in Europe, Central America and South America cooperated in the investigation of child sexual abuse material distributed via WhatsApp.
- Cooperation between the private sector and government agencies is also essential in countering online child sexual exploitation and abuse. This cooperation has involved the “blocking” of registered child sex offenders’ access to platforms frequented and used by children.
- A case in point is the 2012 Operation Game Over, where Microsoft, Apple, Blizzard Entertainment, Electronic Arts, Disney Interactive Media Group, Warner Brothers and Sony took down more than 3,500 accounts of New York registered sex offenders from online video game platforms.
- Databases have also been created where child sexual abuse material can be uploaded for investigative purposes, such as INTERPOL’s International Child Sexual Exploitation (ICSE) database, to counter online child sexual exploitation and abuse.
- POSCO Act of India
- To effectively address the heinous crimes of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation of children through less ambiguous and more stringent legal provisions, the Ministry of Women and Child Development championed the introduction of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012.
- The Act has been enacted to protect children from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography and provide for the establishment of Special Courts for the trial of such offences and related matters and incidents.
- The Adhoc Committee of the Rajya sabha instituted in 2020 by the Chairman of the Committee Shri Jai Ram Ramesh has made far-reaching recommendations to prevent sexual abuse of children and to contain access to and transmission of child pornography content on social media.
Way forward- Suggestions by the Adhoc Committee under Shri Jai Ram Ramesh
- The Committee has recommended some important amendments to the POCSO Act, 2012 and the IT Act, 2000 with corresponding changes to be carried out in the Indian Penal Code.
- A new section be included in the IT Act 2000, providing for punitive measures for those providing pornographic access to children and also those who access, produce or transmit Child Sexual Abuse Material(CSAM).
- National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal shall be designated as the national portal under-reporting requirements in POCSO Act in case of electronic material;
- The Union Government shall be empowered, through its designated authority, to block and/or prohibit all websites/intermediaries that carry child sexual abuse material; the IT Act shall be amended to hold intermediaries accountable for all measures to proactively identify and remove CSAM, as well as to report it to Indian authorities as well as foreign authorities.
- Gateway Internet Service Providers (ISPs) must bear a significant amount of responsibility for detecting and blocking CSAM websites. Intermediaries must also report to the designated authority the IP addresses/identities of all those who search/access child porn/CSAM keywords.
- Law enforcement agencies be permitted to brake end to end encryption to trace distributors of child pornography.
- Social awareness-Ministries of Women and Child Development and Information and Broadcasting shall launch campaigns for greater awareness among parents to recognize early signs of child abuse, online risks and improving online safety for their child.
Mains model Question
- Online child sexual exploitation and abuse is prevalent. What measures should be taken to counter the challenges it throws on us as a society? Comment