English Hindi


100 Expected Questions

Prelims Capsule

Spice of the Month


Federalism• Division of powers between at least two sets of govt. neither of which is legally subordinate to other.
• Federalism is given institutional form by federal system which must have 4 things:
• Two sets of govt. with independent admin/legal competence
• Written constitution from which each derives powers + rigid so that neither can amend unilaterally
• independent judicial courts to arbitrate
• inter-linking of institutions to foster cooperation between two or more sets e.g. Rajya Sabha
Regionalism• Regionalism = Idea of regional identity + it’s politicization => right to self determination
• How India negotiated with regional identity? – through its Constitution
• A mix of federal and unitary features in the Constitution.
• Reorganization – centre can alter boundaries without states’ permission nips regionalism in the bud => nothing is natural, nothing is permanent (Art 3)
• Languages – constitutional innovation (8th Schedule)
• Instead of adopting 1 'national language; we have category of 'official languages’ => alongside Hindi and English, there is a 'schedule' of 22 nationally recognized languages, a list that has expanded over the past five decades at virtually no political cost.
• Status of English and Hindi is subject to parliamentary review every 10 years, which has allowed their continued use and acceptance on pragmatic grounds without giving them a permanent and irrevocable status.
• Regionalization in Indian politics means 2 things:
• parties/regions having regional agenda threatening national identity
• parties/regions do not challenging national identity but affecting federalism and policy making i.e. coalition politics.
Judicial Activism• It implies the “use of the court as an apparatus for intervention over the decisions of lawmakers and policymakers through precedent in case law.”
• In doing so, the Court often creates law and seeks to play a greater part in the governance of a country through “allowing their personal views about public policy” to aid them in their decisions.
• The phrase judicial activism appears to have been coined by the American historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., in a 1947 article.
Bureaucracy• It refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.