Question: Incessant rainfall and long droughts are major threats to agriculture in India. Discuss.
Answer: Agriculture sector in India is suffering due to various natural and anthropogenic factors. The major reasons include lack of rains and excessive rains. This climatic extremes has resulted in stress on rural economy of the country.
Reasons for extreme climate
- Climate change
The biggest reason is climate change due to global warming. The phenomenon has resulted in alteration on global climatic factors such as pressure, temperature, wind flow etc.
- Change in land use pattern
The natural land available is misused and overexploited. It has resulted in degradation of the surroundings and nutrient content. It has caused changes such as land infertility.
- Overexploitation of resources
Destruction of groundwater for irrigation and domestic use has put strain on water availability. The aquifers level has continuously fallen and this has caused problems such as heatwave, urban heat islands etc.
Effects of extreme climate phenomenon
- Desertification of land
Due to excessive heat wave and droughts, land becomes unsuitable for cultivation. As cultivation stops and nutrients degrade, land turns into desert and wasteland.
- Affects food security
Human population is expected to increase and they require ample amount of food availability to sustain the population. Land degradation will reduce agricultural output.
- Large-scale urban migration
When land fertility decreases, output also decreases. It will result in reduction of family income and people will be pushed towards poverty. This is a major push factor for urban migration.
Measures to mitigate
- Climate resilience agriculture
There is a need to develop new varieties of crops and techniques to adapt to changing climatic extremes. This will help in food security and also rural economy.
- Organic farming
Reducing use of chemical fertilizers for practicing agriculture. This will benefit land quality on the long run and will also reduce input costs.
Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on mitigating effects of climate extremities. It will help in sustaining future of inhabitants of Earth.