Question-1: Illegal fishing is a threat to marine ecology as well as livelihoods of millions of people. Discuss. Suggest measures to strengthen vigilance to tackle illegal fishing.
Answer: Illegal fishing refers to fishing activities conducted by foreign vessels without permission in waters under the jurisdiction of another state.
Illegal fishing is majorly carried out by China in areas of South China sea and South Pacific Ocean, thereby threatening sovereignty of other countries.
Effects of illegal fishing on marine ecology
- Destruction of species
Illegal fishing exploits marine resources to the extreme. No organism is spared, leading to extinction of many exotic species.
- Coral ecology
Bottom trawling, which is part of illegal fishing destroys coral ecology. Coral ecosystem is critical for ocean ecology and its destruction will have long-lasting effects.
Effects on livelihood
- Loss of revenue and jobs
Illegal fishing by mechanised boats will affect livelihood of traditional fishermen involved in sustenance fishing. They will lose revenue and also jobs.
- Security threat
Loss of fishing livelihood will compel fishermen to indulge in activities such as piracy, smuggling, terrorism, human trafficking etc.
Measures to tackle
- Satellite tagging
Satellite tagging technology can be used to zero in on illegal fishing vehicles. Their activity can be tracked so that legal proceedings can be initiated.
- Regular operations
Naval ships have to be deployed to prevent illegal fishing in the same way as anti-piracy operations. This will create fear in illegal fishing boats.
Thus, it is necessary to use ocean resources sustainably to conserve it for future. Countries have to strengthen their laws to prevent illegal fishing.
Tags: GS 3 ( Environment)