Question: Explain effects of modernization and globalisation on Tribal population of India.
Answer: Tribal society is characterized by their unique culture, language, and practices that are different from rest of the population. Their area of residence was located in interiors, that had prevented cultural contact with modern population. Globalisation has allowed greater contact between tribal and non tribal population.
Negative effects on Tribal population
- Land loss
As contact with outsiders increased, more number of people began entering and settling in tribal area. The institution of landlords came up and tribals lost their ancient lands. Oppressive people such as moneylenders used backwardness of tribals to grab their lands and make them landless.
Greater connectivity allowed exploration of tribal areas by outsiders. The tribal lands have large resources of minerals and were suitable for setting up industries. In addition, infrastructure projects such as dams and canals forced tribal displacement.
Ex: Rihand dam in central India forced tribal displacement.
- Cultural and identity loss
Culture and language of tribals were lost when they came into contact with outsiders. Modern activities such as missionary and changing customs forced tribals to adapt majority culture. Their unique characteristics were no longer prevalent.
Ex: Culture of tribal dormitories, religious beliefs.
- Poverty and unemployment
Changing landscape and practices are responsible for issues such as unemployment and poverty in tribals. They are forced to work as farm labourers or bonded labourers. They also migrate far away places in search of work.
Positive effects on Tribal population
- Eradication of superstition
The contact with outsiders helped in eradication of superstitious practices among tribals. Hindu and Christian missionaries were responsible for bringing some reforms in such practices. The use of magic for disease curing was stopped and modern education practices were adopted.
Ex: Burial of new born along with dead mother in Khasi tribes has been stopped.
- Educational opportunities
Tribals were one of the least educated groups. The entry of missionaries brought education standards to improve their lives. Schools and colleges were established for education of tribals. This has helped tribals in north east India to attain a high level of educational standards.
Ex: VanavasiKalyan schools, Eklavya Residential schools.
- National integration
Globalisation has helped to remove isolation of tribals from rest of the country. They have been introduced to outside practices, that has brought some sort of behavioural changes. This has helped in national integration and unity.
- Legal and constitutional protection
The degrading life of tribals have captured attention of authorities due to better communication. This has translated into protection for tribals, their language, and culture. Constitutional protection such as 5th schedule and 6th schedule have given more authority and autonomy to tribals.
Thus, tribals have been benefitted as well as penalized due to globalisation and modernization. The impetus is on government to maintain balance between ancient culture and modern practices.