Question: Elaborate on the importance of monsoons for domestic economy and livelihoods. Explain the effects of variable monsoons on India.
Answer: Monsoons are climatic phenomenon that plays a central role in India’s growth and development. They are mostly regular in occurrence but sometimes are affected by global climatic changes and become unpredictable.
Importance of monsoons
Majority of Indian agriculture is rain-fed and monsoon rains have a majority of stake in watering the crops. Without monsoons, large area of agricultural land becomes unviable for growing crops.
- Reduction in temperature
The temperature of the country that gets increased during the summer months is considerably lowered as a result of rains. They offer respite for all living beings.
- Drinking water needs
The regions away from Himalayas are depended on river and ground water for drinking and domestic needs. These sources have to be replenished through monsoon rains.
- Electricity generation
Large share of electricity generated in India is based on hydropower. The technology works only if enough water is available to be stored in reservoirs.
Effects of variable monsoons
Failure of monsoons can be devastating. The land will fail to grow crops and drinking water will not be available. This combination leads to serious droughts.
- Food insecurity
Since majority of Indian agriculture is depended on rain-fed irrigation, failure of rains will lead to reduction in output. This will affect our food security.
- Migration and instability
Political instability is another such effect of droughts that can put our society in peril. There will be increase in migration towards cities and it will lead to uncontrolled urbanisation.
Thus, monsoon is not just a climatic phenomenon. The whole of India and its economy is depended on it. Its failure can lead to devastation.