Question-1: Discuss Journey of India’s federal feature from co-operative to competitive, and now combative or confrontation federalism with examples.
Answer: Federalism is a system of dual governance in which the powers is distributed between a central authority and a regional authority for easing governance.
The idea of federalism in engrossed in our constitution and was inspired from the Canadian constitution. It is also a part of basic structure of constitution.
Types of federalism
- Cooperative federalism
It is a flexible relationship between the federal and state governments in which both work together on a variety of issues and programs.
Ex: Health and education
- Competitive federalism
It is a federalism model in which centre competes with states and vice-versa, and states compete with each other.
Ex: NitiAayog Ease of Doing Business
- Confrontational federalism
It is a federalism structure in which the central government transgresses into the powers of the state government.
Ex: Investigative powers of CBI
- India is a federal stateand it can prosper only through cooperation between the centre and states.
- The Supreme Court also upheld that federal structure of our polity is part of basic structure in SR Bommai vs Union of India (1994).
- The Union government needs to invest resources towards facilitating effective consultation with States as a part of the lawmaking process.
Thus, a system needs to be established where citizens and States are treated as partners and not subjects.
Tags: GS 2 ( Polity and Governance)
By: Prashant Tiwari